economic and social environment pdf

Economic And Social Environment Pdf

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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. T he previous chapters of this report focused on health systems and individual and household-level risks that might explain the U. In contrast with traditional environmental health approaches that focus primarily on toxic substances in air, water, and soil, this more recent approach conceptualizes the environment more broadly to encompass a range of human-made physical and social features that are affected by public policy Frumkin,

Social, Economic and Environmental Impact Tool (SEE-IT)

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. T he previous chapters of this report focused on health systems and individual and household-level risks that might explain the U. In contrast with traditional environmental health approaches that focus primarily on toxic substances in air, water, and soil, this more recent approach conceptualizes the environment more broadly to encompass a range of human-made physical and social features that are affected by public policy Frumkin, These economic, social, urban or rural, transportation, and other policies that affect the environment were not traditionally thought of as relevant to health policy but are now attracting greater attention because decision makers are beginning to recognize their health implications Cole and Fielding, By definition, environmental factors affect large groups that share common living or working spaces.

Thus, they are key candidates as explanatory factors for health differences across geographic areas, such as countries. Indeed, a major motivation for the research on environmental determinants of health has been the repeated observation that many health outcomes are spatially patterned. These patterns are present across countries and across regions within countries, as well as at smaller scales, such as across urban neighborhoods Center on Human Needs, b; Kawachi and Subramanian, Strong spatial variation is present for a large range of.

Understanding the reasons for the spatial patterns of health within countries may shed light on environmental factors that may contribute to differences across countries. Several factors may explain the strong spatial patterns that are observed within countries. A key contender is the spatial sorting of people based on their socioeconomic position, race, or ethnicity. However, evidence suggests that regional and neighborhood differences in health persist even after adjusting for these socioeconomic and demographic factors Diez Roux and Mair, ; Mair et al.

This evidence suggests that broad environmental factors may play an important role in health. Moreover, environmental factors linked to space and place may in turn contribute to and reinforce socioeconomic and racial or ethnic health disparities Bleich et al. Thus, individual and environmental factors may be part of a reinforcing cycle that creates and perpetuates health differences.

These reinforcing processes by which environmental factors and individual-, family-, and community-level factors reinforce each other over time may also play an important role in generating cross-national differences in health. This chapter focuses on both the physical and social environment in the United States as potential contributors to its health disadvantage relative to other high-income countries. This chapter, like others before it, focuses on three questions:.

The factors in the physical environment that are important to health include harmful substances, such as air pollution or proximity to toxic sites the focus of classic environmental epidemiology ; access to various health-related resources e.

The environment can affect health through physical exposures, such as air pollution OECD, b. A large body of work has documented the effects of exposure to particulate matter solid particles and liquid droplets found in the air on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality and morbidity Brook et al.

Research has identified specific physiologic mechanisms by which these exposures affect inflammatory, autonomic, and vascular processes Brook et al. The effects of particulate matter on mortality appear to be consistent across countries. For example, a recent review of studies from the late s to mids found a consistent inverse relationship between airborne particulate matter and birth weight in Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Italy, the Netherlands, South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the United States Parker et al.

Another notable example is the evidence linking lead exposures to cognitive development in children Bellinger, ; Levin et al. The evidence of environmental effects of air pollution and lead has been reflected in legislation in many countries directed at reducing levels of these pollutants in the environment. Increasing attention has focused on the implications for health behaviors and social interactions that are created by the built environment.

The identification of causal effects using these aggregate summaries raises a number of methodological challenges and does not allow one to identify the specific environmental attributes that may be relevant. More recent work has attempted to identify the specific environmental factors that may be important to specific health outcomes, as well as the pathways through which these factors may operate.

For example, the health of some nations is affected by their geography or climate. An important example is evidence that links proximity to healthy or unhealthy food stores with dietary behaviors and related chronic disease outcomes Babey et al. Another large body of work has documented how walking and physical activity levels are affected by access to recreational facilities, land use mix, transportation systems, and urban planning and design Auchinloss et al.

Across countries, studies have also shown that physical activity by children is associated with features of the built environment, including walking-related features, and physical activity resources Bringolf-Isler et al. Although more definitive evidence is needed see Feng et al.

The importance of residential environments to obesity and related conditions, such as diabetes, was recently highlighted by a randomized housing intervention: low-income participants who were randomly assigned to move into low-poverty areas experienced significant improvements. An important difficulty in comparing results across countries is that the proxy measure for the local food environment is often the type of food stores or restaurants available such as supermarkets or fast food outlets , but the extent to which these typologies reflect relevant differences in the foods actually available to consumers may differ significantly across countries.

One recent review found that access to open space parks and other green spaces in neighborhoods was associated with physical activity levels in both the United States and Australia Pearce and Maddison, Unfortunately, the study was not designed to identify the specific environmental features responsible for the observed effect.

A range of other physical environmental features have been linked to other health outcomes. For example, the density of alcohol retail outlets has been linked to alcohol-related health complications Campbell et al.

Transportation systems and other aspects of physical environments that influence driving behaviors are also related to injury morbidity and mortality Douglas et al. Living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods as a proxy for a range of environmental exposures has been linked to higher rates of injury in both adults and children Cubbin et al.

Factors in the social environment that are important to health include those related to safety, violence, and social disorder in general, and more specific factors related to the type, quality, and stability of social connections, including social participation, social cohesion, social capital, and the collective efficacy of the neighborhood or work environment Ahern and Galea, What also seems important is the stability of social connections, such as the composition and stability of households 7 and the existence of stable and supportive local social environments or neighborhoods in which to live and work.

A network of social relationships is an important source of support and appears to be an important influence on health behaviors. Social environments may also operate. Neighborhood conditions can create stress Cutrona et al. Features of social environments that may operate as stressors including perceptions of safety and social disorder have been linked to mental health, as have factors that could buffer the adverse effects of stress e.

One mechanism through which the social environment can enhance health is through social support. Social support has appeared in many but not all studies to buffer the effects of stress Cohen and Wills, ; Matthews and Gallo, ; Ozbay et al.

Resilience to the adverse health effects of stress has also been tied to factors that could influence how one perceives a situation threat versus challenge and how one responds to stressors Harrell et al.

One theory for the tendency of some immigrant groups to have better health outcomes than might be expected on the basis of their incomes and education see Chapter 6 is the social support immigrants often provide one another Matthews et al. Studies have shown consistent relationships between social capital and self-reported health status, as well as to some measures of mortality Barefoot et al.

Social capital depends on the ability of people to form and maintain relationships and networks with their neighbors. Characteristics of communities that foster distrust among neighbors, such as neglected properties and criminal activity, can affect both the cohesiveness of neighbors as well as the frequency of poor health outcomes Center on Human Needs, b.

In addition to considering differences between the United States and other countries in the absolute levels of environmental factors, it is also important to consider how these factors are distributed within countries. Levels of residential segregation shape environmental differences across neighborhoods Reardon and Bischoff, ; Subramanian et al. Neighborhoods with residents who are mostly low-income or minorities may be less able to advocate for resources and services.

Perceptions and stereotypes about area reputation, local demand for products and services, and the purchasing power of residents may also influence the location of health-relevant resources. Physical environmental threats such as proximity to hazardous sites may be more prevalent in low-income or minority neighborhoods, a concern of the environmental justice movement Brulle and Pellow, ; Evans and Kantrowitz, ; Mohai et al.

These neighborhoods may also lack the social connections and political power that can help remedy adverse conditions. The panel focused its attention on the role of local physical and social environments as potential contributors to the U.

Nor did the panel examine whether neighborhood conditions exert a greater influence on access to health care in the United States than in peer countries. However, these conditions are important to health. For example, the school environments of children, adolescents, and college students can affect diet, physical activity, and the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs Katz, ; Wechsler and Nelson, Workplaces have also long been recognized as important determinants of health and health inequalities, occupational safety, and access to preventive services Anderson et al.

Physical working conditions e. Exposure to job strain exhibits a strong social gradient, which influences inequalities in the health of workers Bambra, Although the panel did not undertake a systematic comparison of workplace conditions in the United States and other countries, it did note that U.

Other working conditions and work-related policies for U. For example, U. Other important differences in work-related policies include employment protection and unemployment benefits, as well as family and sickness leave see Chapter 8. There is scant literature comparing social and physical environmental features across countries.

Here we provide selected examples of the ways in which levels or distributions of physical and social environments relevant to health might differ between the United States and other high-income countries. Few data are available to make cross-national comparisons of exposure to harmful physical or chemical environmental hazards.

There is, for example, little evidence that air pollution is a more severe problem in the United States than in other high-income countries Baldasano et al. The heavy reliance on automobile transportation in the United States is linked to traffic levels, which contribute to air pollution and its health consequences Brook et al. Data on population exposures to air pollution across countries are relatively scarce OECD, b. One available measure is the concentration of particulate matter less than 10 micrometers in diameter PM : 12 in the United States, the concentration of PM levels is An important factor that influences a range of environmental features relates to patterns of land use and transportation.

In general, U. This characteristic has promoted dispersed automobile-dependent development patterns Transportation Research Board, with consequences for population density, land use mix, and walkability Richardson, , all of which may have health implications. In , the United States had motor vehicles per 1, people compared with in the United Kingdom, in Sweden, in France, and in Germany World Bank, b. Cities in the United States tend to be less compact and have fewer public transportation and nonmotorized travel options and longer commuting distances than cities in other high-income countries Richardson and Bae, Many European countries have strong antisprawl and pro-urban centralization policies that may contribute to environments that encourage walking and physical activity as part of daily life Richardson and Bae, International comparisons of the social environment are complicated by difficulties in obtaining comparable measures of social environments.

For example, aside from their direct links to injury mortality see Chapter 1 , violence and drug use may be indirect markers of social environmental features that affect other health outcomes. As noted in Chapters 1 and 2 , homicide rates in the United States are markedly higher than in other rich nations. There are fewer data to compare rates of other crimes across countries. As noted in Chapter 5 , certain forms of drug use which is often linked to other social environmental features also appear to be more prevalent in the United States than in other high-income countries.

Although Chapter 6 documented a long-standing trend of greater poverty and other social problems in the United States than in peer countries,. In particular, particles that are less than 2. Environmental Protection Agency, At least one study of cross-national differences in social capital found that the United States ranked at an intermediate level compared with other high-income countries in measures of interpersonal trust; the study also found that the United States ranked higher than many other countries on indicators of membership in organizations Schyns and Koop, A previous National Research Council report and a paper prepared for that study Banks et al.

However, the focus of that paper was on the social isolation of individuals rather than on social cohesion or social capital measured as a group-level construct. This figure is one of the lowest in the OECD a.

A brief review of socio-economic and environmental impact of Covid-19

Socioeconomics also known as social economics is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern societies progress , stagnate , or regress because of their local or regional economy, or the global economy. Societies are divided into three groups: social, cultural and economic. It also refers to the ways that social and economic factors influence the environment. A distinct supplemental usage describes social economics as "a discipline studying the reciprocal relationship between economic science on the one hand and social philosophy , ethics , and human dignity on the other" toward social reconstruction and improvement [4] or as also emphasizing multidisciplinary methods from such fields as sociology , history , and political science. Socioeconomic system at the regional level refers to the way social and economic factors influence one another in local communities and households.

This study models local and cross-city transmissions of the novel coronavirus in China between January 19 and February 29, We examine the role of various socioeconomic mediating factors, including public health measures that encourage social distancing in local communities. Weather characteristics 2 weeks prior are used as instrumental variables for causal inference. Stringent quarantines, city lockdowns, and local public health measures imposed in late January significantly decreased the virus transmission rate. The virus spread was contained by the middle of February. Population outflow from the outbreak source region posed a higher risk to the destination regions than other factors, including geographic proximity and similarity in economic conditions. We quantify the effects of different public health measures in reducing the number of infections through counterfactual analyses.

This chapter aims to investigate how social and environmental progress indicators lead economic indicators of development in Sudan. Economic indicators are represented by gross domestic product GDP , investment, and unemployment. Social progress indicators are represented by life expectancy at birth standing for health and school enrollment for education. Environmental performance is indicated by access to safe drinking water and access to sanitation facilities. Trade as percentage of GDP is included to represent openness and outward of the economy. The study provides analytical links between these development dimensions and found empirical verification that social and environmental performance indicators cause economic growth rather than the other way around through dynamic econometric methods utilizing time series data over the period — Accordingly, the study provided recommendations and projections on enhancing social progress indicators toward Sustainable Development Goal SDG targets.

Curitiba demonstrates that the goal of making cities more 'green' to mitigate their. Page 2. A. D. Basiago. impact on the environment can be embodied in.

Social, Economic and Environmental Impact Tool (SEE-IT)

Economists assume that people make choices based on their preferences and their budget constraints. The preferences and values of others play no role in the standard economic model. This feature has been sharply criticized by other social scientists, who believe that the choices people make are also conditioned by social and cultural forces. Economists, meanwhile, are not satisfied with standard sociological and anthropological concepts and explanations because they are not embedded in a testable, analytic framework.

To enable national, local and regional authorities to do better ex ante and ex post evaluations of age-friendly environments innovations, we have developed the SEE-IT : S ocio E conomic E nvironmental I mpact T ool.

Summary Report on the Social, Economic and Environmental Impacts of the Bioeconomy

In recent months, Covid has caused significant global social and economic distress. Governments and health officials around the world have introduced mandatory preventive measures to combat Covid, i. Social distancing and mandatory lockdown have also been put in place to protect people from Covid This epidemic has caused severe demographic changes and unemployment, and economic activities have been shut down to save human lives. However, restricted economic activities have also contributed towards a cleaner environment. However, environmental changes are not permanent, and the pollution level may rise again in the future.

Arabic Chinese French Russian Spanish. Text in PDF Format. Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,. Recognizing that, in accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the ideal of free human beings enjoying freedom from fear and want can only be achieved if conditions are created whereby everyone may enjoy his economic, social and cultural rights, as well as his civil and political rights,. Considering the obligation of States under the Charter of the United Nations to promote universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and freedoms,. Realizing that the individual, having duties to other individuals and to the community to which he belongs, is under a responsibility to strive for the promotion and observance of the rights recognized in the present Covenant,.

RI Quarterly Vol. 3: Long-termism in financial markets

Our "environment" includes both social and physical determinants of health. Social impacts on health are embedded in the broader environment and shaped by complex relationships between economic systems and social structures. These systems and structures impact the distribution of resources, money and power in a community and around the world. This distribution, known as the socioeconomic environment, shapes how communities and individuals can gain the resources needed to meet their basic human needs. E conomic status is typically measured by income and education, social status measured by power and rank in a group, and work status measured by occupation. Access to resources is largely shaped by access to education, income and power. Occupational status can determine access to resources that can affect exposure to hazards and risk for death and disability.

Rather than attempting to exhaustively list the whole plethora of products and processes in the bioeconomy, the database presents a taxonomy of the main product categories, production processes and types of feedstock in the bioeconomy as well as some salient sustainability impacts and governance issues. The document is available for download.

COVID has heightened human suffering, undermined the economy, turned the lives of billions of people around the globe upside down, and significantly affected the health, economic, environmental and social domains. This study aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of the impact of the COVID outbreak on the ecological domain, the energy sector, society and the economy and investigate the global preventive measures taken to reduce the transmission of COVID This analysis unpacks the key responses to COVID, the efficacy of current initiatives, and summarises the lessons learnt as an update on the information available to authorities, business and industry. This review found that a hour delay in the collection and disposal of waste from infected households and quarantine facilities is crucial to controlling the spread of the virus. Broad sector by sector plans for socio-economic growth as well as a robust entrepreneurship-friendly economy is needed for the business to be sustainable at the peak of the pandemic.

Actively scan device characteristics for identification. Use precise geolocation data. Select personalised content.

Deprived groups may experience differential access to greenspaces and associated services, which may be detrimental to their well-being. In some cases, these deprived groups are exposed to environmental risks while they are also disproportionately more vulnerable to its effects. Social justice aims to give individuals and groups fair treatment and an impartial share of social, environmental and economic benefits. The concept promotes the fair distribution of advantages and disadvantages within a society, regardless of background and status.

Голоса не стихали. Он прислушался. Голоса звучали возбужденно. - Мидж.

Social Economics

 Мне говорили, - улыбнулся Беккер. Он присел на край койки.  - Теперь, мистер Клушар, позвольте спросить, почему такой человек, как вы, оказался в таком месте. В Севилье есть больницы получше. - Этот полицейский… - Клушар рассердился.

Я подумал о том, чтобы его ликвидировать, но со всей этой шумихой вокруг кода и его заявлений о ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ мы тут же стали бы первыми подозреваемыми. И вот тогда меня осенило.  - Он повернулся к Сьюзан.  - Я понял, что Цифровую крепость не следует останавливать. Сьюзан смотрела на него в растерянности.

the pdf for pdf


  1. Michelle K.

    In ten years, more than half the world's population will be living in cities.

    11.05.2021 at 18:33 Reply

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