File Name: oil and gas exploration .zip
- Petroleum Exploration: A Quantitative Introduction
- Hydrocarbon exploration
- Petroleum Exploration: A Quantitative Introduction
- Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Lending
Petroleum Exploration: A Quantitative Introduction
Hydrocarbon exploration or oil and gas exploration is the search by petroleum geologists and geophysicists for deposits of hydrocarbons , particularly petroleum and natural gas , in the Earth using petroleum geology.
Visible surface features such as oil seeps , natural gas seeps, pockmarks underwater craters caused by escaping gas provide basic evidence of hydrocarbon generation be it shallow or deep in the Earth.
However, most exploration depends on highly sophisticated technology to detect and determine the extent of these deposits using exploration geophysics. Areas thought to contain hydrocarbons are initially subjected to a gravity survey , magnetic survey , passive seismic or regional seismic reflection surveys to detect large-scale features of the sub-surface geology.
Features of interest known as leads are subjected to more detailed seismic surveys which work on the principle of the time it takes for reflected sound waves to travel through matter rock of varying densities and using the process of depth conversion to create a profile of the substructure.
Finally, when a prospect has been identified and evaluated and passes the oil company's selection criteria, an exploration well is drilled in an attempt to conclusively determine the presence or absence of oil or gas.
Offshore the risk can be reduced by using electromagnetic methods . Oil exploration is an expensive, high-risk operation.
Offshore and remote area exploration is generally only undertaken by very large corporations or national governments.
Typical shallow shelf oil wells e. A prospect is a potential trap which geologists believe may contain hydrocarbons. A significant amount of geological, structural and seismic investigation must first be completed to redefine the potential hydrocarbon drill location from a lead to a prospect.
Four geological factors have to be present for a prospect to work and if any of them fail neither oil nor gas will be present. Hydrocarbon exploration is a high risk investment and risk assessment is paramount for successful project portfolio management.
Exploration risk is a difficult concept and is usually defined by assigning confidence to the presence of the imperative geological factors, as discussed above. High confidence in the presence of imperative geological factors is usually coloured green and low confidence coloured red.
Furthermore, it results in simple maps that can be understood by non-geologists and managers to base exploration decisions on. Petroleum resources are typically owned by the government of the host country. In the United States, most onshore land oil and gas rights OGM are owned by private individuals, in which case oil companies must negotiate terms for a lease of these rights with the individual who owns the OGM.
Sometimes this is not the same person who owns the land surface. In most nations the government issues licences to explore, develop and produce its oil and gas resources, which are typically administered by the oil ministry. There are several different types of licence. Oil companies often operate in joint ventures to spread the risk; one of the companies in the partnership is designated the operator who actually supervises the work. Resources are hydrocarbons which may or may not be produced in the future.
A resource number may be assigned to an undrilled prospect or an unappraised discovery. Appraisal by drilling additional delineation wells or acquiring extra seismic data will confirm the size of the field and lead to project sanction. At this point the relevant government body gives the oil company a production licence which enables the field to be developed.
This is also the point at which oil reserves and gas reserves can be formally booked. Oil and gas reserves are defined as volumes that will be commercially recovered in the future. Reserves are separated into three categories: proved, probable, and possible. To be included in any reserves category, all commercial aspects must have been addressed, which includes government consent. Technical issues alone separate proved from unproved categories. All reserve estimates involve some degree of uncertainty.
Proved oil and gas reserves are those quantities of oil and gas, which, by analysis of geoscience and engineering data, can be estimated with reasonable certainty to be economically producible—from a given date forward, from known reservoirs, and under existing economic conditions, operating methods, and government regulations—prior to the time at which contracts providing the right to operate expire, unless evidence indicates that renewal is reasonably certain, regardless of whether deterministic or probabilistic methods are used for the estimation.
The project to extract the hydrocarbons must have commenced or the operator must be reasonably certain that it will commence the project within a reasonable time. The term 1P is frequently used to denote proved reserves; 2P is the sum of proved and probable reserves; and 3P the sum of proved, probable, and possible reserves.
The best estimate of recovery from committed projects is generally considered to be the 2P sum of proved and probable reserves. Note that these volumes only refer to currently justified projects or those projects already in development.
Oil and gas reserves are the main asset of an oil company. Booking is the process by which they are added to the balance sheet. Securities and Exchange Commission. Reported reserves may be audited by outside geologists, although this is not a legal requirement. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Archived from the original on Archived PDF from the original on Retrieved January 18, What Does It Do?
How Do We Quantify It? How Do We Use It? Retrieved CS1 maint: archived copy as title link. Petroleum industry. Petroleum Primary energy. Acronyms Oil shale gas Peak oil mitigation timing People Petrocurrency Petrodollar recycling Shale band Shale gas Swing producer Unconventional oil heavy crude oil sands oil shale tight oil.
Companies and organisations. Major petroleum companies. National oil companies. Major services companies. Hidden categories: CS1 maint: archived copy as title Articles needing additional references from February All articles needing additional references All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from November Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.
Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version.
Previous Version. This booklet applies to the OCC's supervision of national banks and federal savings associations. References to national banks in this booklet also generally apply to federal branches and agencies of foreign banking organizations. What are you searching for in OCC. Office of the Comptroller of the Currency. Search OCC Website. About About Overview.
Petroleum Exploration: A Quantitative Introduction
You may save the forms to your computer, however it is advisable to periodically download the forms from this website to ensure that you are using the most current form. This will reduce the likelihood for unnecessary delays in processing your submittal. If you have any difficulty using any of the forms downloaded from our website, please contact Jamie Adams at or by email at jadams dnr.
Light and sweet crude oil is usually priced higher, and therefore more sought-after, because it is easier to refine to make gasoline than heavy and sour crude oil. Natural gas is found in both associated formations, meaning it is formed and produced with oil, and non-associated reservoirs. Gas can either be dry pure methane , or wet exists with other hydrocarbons like butane. Although wet gas must be treated to remove the other hydrocarbons and other condensates before it can be transported, it can increase producers' revenues because they can sell those removed products.
Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Lending
The following maps show the drilling history and oil and gas production of selected low-permeability, continuous-type shale reservoirs. Selected geologic characteristics pertinent to occurrence of producible oil and gas resources are also shown when available. The Volumetrically Largest U.
Хейл продолжал взывать к ней: - Я отключил Следопыта, подумав, что ты за мной шпионишь. Заподозрила, что с терминала Стратмора скачивается информация, и вот-вот выйдешь на. Правдоподобно, но маловероятно. - Зачем же ты убил Чатрукьяна? - бросила. - Я не убивал его! - Крик Хейла перекрыл вой сирены. - Его столкнул вниз Стратмор.
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and/or its Member Countries the exploration, exploitation, refining and utilization of its petroleum or other energy resources. emmanuelchurchbeth.org
Энсей Танкадо сделал карьеру на простых числах. Простые числа - главные строительные блоки шифровальных алгоритмов, они обладали уникальной ценностью сами по. Эти числа отлично работают при создании шифров, потому что компьютеры не могут угадать их с помощью обычного числового дерева. Соши даже подпрыгнула. - Да. Совершенно верно.
Рука его все еще сжимала пачку банкнот, пятьдесят тысяч песет, которые какой-то сумасшедший американец заплатил ему за дешевый черный пиджак. ГЛАВА 94 Мидж Милкен в крайнем раздражении стояла возле бачка с охлажденной водой у входа в комнату заседаний. Что, черт возьми, делает Фонтейн? - Смяв в кулаке бумажный стаканчик, она с силой швырнула его в бачок для мусора. - В шифровалке творится нечто непонятное. Я чувствую .
Последний файл обычно попадает в машину около полуночи. И не похоже, что… - Что? - Бринкерхофф даже подпрыгнул.
Пора звонить Стратмору и выкладывать плохую новость: поиски зашли в тупик. Он сделал все, что мог, теперь пора ехать домой. Но сейчас, глядя на толпу завсегдатаев, пытающихся попасть в клуб, Беккер не был уверен, что сможет отказаться от дальнейших поисков. Он смотрел на огромную толпу панков, какую ему еще никогда не доводилось видеть.
Сьюзан с облегчением вздохнула: - Туда, где твое подлинное призвание. Дэвид улыбнулся: - Да. Наверное, Испания напомнила мне о том, что по-настоящему важно. - Помогать вскрывать шифры? - Она чмокнула его в щеку. - Как бы там ни было, ты поможешь мне с моей рукописью.
Конечно. Договорились. Девушка покачала головой.