wind power generation and wind turbine design wei tong pdf

Wind Power Generation And Wind Turbine Design Wei Tong Pdf

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The rising concerns over global warming, environmental pollution, and energy security have increased interest in developing renewable and environmentally friendly energy sources such as wind, solar, hydropower, geothermal, hydrogen, and biomass as the replacements for fossil fuels. Wind energy can provide suitable solutions to the global climate change and energy crisis.

Abstract: Besides the wind speed, the angle of the blades in the wind turbine can affect the rotational speed of the wind turbine. In order for the blade to adjust the angle of the blade automatically, it needs to be equipped with a pendulum. The focus of this article is the design and testing of wind turbine rotational speed control using a pendulum. The pendulum is positioned at a certain radius to the turbine shaft X axis for the sensitivity of the speed sensor and at the blade edge Y axis to provide torsional force on the blade. Then designed a wind turbine prototype equipped with a pendulum which is based on the characteristic angular curve when it comes to changes in wind speed.

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The paper proposes a methodology for reliable design and maintenance of wind turbine rotor blades using a condition monitoring approach and a damage tolerance index coupling the material and structure.

By improving the understanding of material properties that control damage propagation it will be possible to combine damage tolerant structural design, monitoring systems, inspection techniques and modelling to manage the life cycle of the structures. This will allow an efficient operation of the wind turbine in terms of load alleviation, limited maintenance and repair leading to a more effective exploitation of offshore wind.

The potential for offshore energy production in Europe is enormous. In , the executive body of the European Union issued a communication detailing the Roadmap for Maritime Spatial Planning [ 1 ].

This roadmap was intended to balance the requirements of various sectorial interests using marine resources, and offshore energy particularly wind was anticipated to make very significant increases in the near to medium term.

However, in order to support this growth it is vital to make significant reductions in the cost of energy CoE of offshore wind, as was discussed at the most important wind energy conference EWEA [ 2 ].

A radically different approach is needed to design and operate offshore wind turbines. This is what we propose in this paper. The most eye-catching trend for wind energy structural components is the up-scaling history where new turbine designs have consistently provided larger turbines with higher power ratings. The industry relies on advances in materials technology to deliver cost-effective light-weight structures.

Although larger turbines cost more to manufacture per unit cost of turbine, CoT , this small relative increase is more than compensated for by the absolute saving possible when factoring cost of installation CoI and the cost of maintenance CoM with larger turbine units.

These costs are factored against the PP:. The manual inspection of wind turbines inconveniently placed on high towers in remote places involves a certain amount of travel time as equipment and personnel are moved between them; higher MW turbines help to reduce this cost relative to the power output of the wind farm. However, economies of up-scaling for the operation of an offshore, multi-MW wind farm can be challenged as the consequence of a single turbine downtime is more significant, and all personnel operation offshore is more expensive.

Therefore, cost reduction by using remote monitoring becomes increasingly attractive as a means to suppress unexpected downtime, and focus limited maintenance and repair operations. Some research groups are working on a multi-physics global model [ 4 — 8 ], as represented by the scheme in figure 1. A multi-physics global model is defined as a fluid-structural interaction model that aims to capture and integrate several phenomena: meteorology, aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, aero-elasticity, structural vibration, energy output, control, etc.

For example, the integrated response of the tower pillar to the aerodynamic load on the blades and waves on the foundations. However, this approach will not be achieved until all physical phenomena are sufficiently well understood.

Wind turbines are a multi-physics problem, and the complexity of the structure and loading, and the variability and turbulence of the wind create challenges for the application of such a method.

At this time, significant research effort is being made in order to fully research the most complex phenomena at each of the scales presented in figure 1. Obviously, it is not possible to predict the aerodynamical load history on a wind turbine rotor blade in detail for a year period of time. There are two approaches to address this. One is to make lifetime predictions based on statistics. Another approach, as will be pursued here, involves the use of sensors to detect the conditions of the blades to obtain an updated lifetime prediction.

A wind turbine rotor blade structure is defined in terms of its outer geometry and inner structural layout. It can be made from different materials and will be subjected to varying loads from wind and varying direction of gravity due to the rotation of the rotor. A typical turbine blade design is based on a load-carrying laminate in a rectangular hollow beam spar. In another common blade design, there is no spar; instead there is a combination of a load-carrying laminate incorporated in the aero shell together with two shear webs [ 9 ].

The beam spar and the sandwich face sheets of the aero shell are made from fibre reinforced polymer composite materials figure 2 ; the sandwich cores are made from polymeric foam or balsa wood and the blade is assembled with adhesives between the aero shells at the leading edge, between the spar and the aero shell and between the aero shells at the trailing edge.

Schematics of major failure modes in a part of a wind turbine rotor blade. The shaded areas indicate cracked internal regions.

At the structural scale, a wind turbine rotor blade can develop various types of damage, such as cracks along adhesive joints e. Laminates can fail by cracks parallel to the fibre direction e.

Of these, delamination of laminates and adhesive bonded joints are usually the most critical [ 9 , 10 ]. Fibre reinforced polymer composite materials consist of two macroscopic phases, a stiff fibre phase usually glass or carbon and a polymer matrix usually polyester or epoxy.

One of the advantages of fibre reinforced polymer composites is that the alignment of the fibres can be arranged to suit the required properties of the intended structure. Thus, the requirement for a stiff but lightweight structure means fibre orientations primarily along the length of the blade and an inherently anisotropic set of material characteristics.

A key feature of structures designed using composite material is that the manufacturing process itself will determine certain characteristics of the material, and hence the behaviour of the final structure. All this is to say that when looking to optimize the properties of a wind turbine blade, it is necessary to consider material choice, design approach and the manufacturing process as an integrated issue.

For example, a common processing procedure is to stack layers of the dry reinforcement fibres before infusing with a thermosetting resin to create the finished composite material. This results in a laminated structure with significant stiffening mainly along the length direction of the blade.

But the effect on out-of-plane properties and the weak interfaces between layers of the composite material needs to be understood at the material level, if the final structure is to be sound and resistant to any out-of-plane loading. The design philosophy for fibre reinforced polymer structures was initially based on conservative analysis methods with large safety factors, underestimating the actual material properties and considering primarily the linear elastic material behaviour.

As knowledge about materials and structures increased, it has now become possible to safely adopt more advanced design philosophies. This general trend to more advanced structural design is described elsewhere [ 11 ]. In wind turbine blade design, it is important to take into account different nonlinear effects as described in [ 12 ]. Failure of a wind turbine blade has small to minor consequence as the risk for human lives is small, especially offshore since persons are not close to the wind turbines.

The optimal target reliability level can therefore be determined by cost—benefit analysis, where all the cost during the wind turbines design life is taken into account [ 13 ]. Partial safety factors can be calibrated to obtain the desired target reliability level for the structure [ 14 ]. And the uncertainties for the material properties for composite materials can be modelled [ 15 ].

Probabilistic design methods give a prediction for the risk of failure in average, but give, in principle, no information for the condition and risk of failure for a particular blade. However, this information is available within a structural design philosophy based on damage monitoring. The approach is to use damage tolerant materials and a structural health and prognostic management system as part of a condition-based maintenance programme. It is an axiom of structural health monitoring SHM [ 16 ] that detectable changes in response must occur between undamaged and damaged states, thus implying damage tolerance.

Evaluating the severity of the particular combination of damage types requires models that describe the progression parameters for each type under the full range of operating conditions.

Only in this way can condition-based maintenance be effectively implemented. Our vision consists of a damage tolerance approach that can be made using conditional inspections and models that describe progression for all known failure types [ 17 , 18 ]. The future design philosophy will be based on an SHM approach where sensors integrated during manufacture provide feedback that is used to optimize the entire life cycle. And this again requires an advance in materials knowledge to implement effectively.

All this needs to be achieved in a framework of condition-based maintenance, remote monitoring and prognosis, as presented in figure 3. Requiring very strict quality control and allowing only parts with small manufacturing defect size may lead to a high rate of discarded blade parts.

Obviously, this would lead to a higher blade price. An alternative approach, proposed here, is to allow more blades with manufacturing defects to be used in service by ensuring that the defects lead to stable damage, i. For a given wind turbine design, the damage evolution will depend on structural details and materials properties that cannot be accurately controlled during manufacturing. Furthermore, each blade on a wind turbine in an offshore wind farm will experience its own, unique combination of load history.

Consequently, blades will not undergo identical damage evolution. One blade may undergo a loading history that leads to more damage in one area, while another blade, having a different set of manufacturing defects and experiencing another load history, may develop damage in other areas of the blade. The key features in the proposed condition-based maintenance approach can be summarized as follows.

First, in the design phase, the designer will choose materials and structural layout that give a high damage tolerance. The designer also will decide on the type of sensors for damage detection and determines from structural analysis which areas are the most critical and where the sensor should be placed. Sensor surveillance can cover transportation, installation and in-service operation, and be part of the post-manufacturing control by contributing to non-destructive inspection NDI procedures.

For the few blades that will develop serious damage, sensor alarms will be sent from the offshore wind turbine to the on-shore surveillance centre, which can then send out a maintenance team to inspect the blade at the position where the damage is detected. The team will use non-destructive techniques such as ultrasound scanning, radiography X-ray , etc. This information will be used in detailed structural models e.

It will then be possible to assess the criticality of the damage and decide whether the blade can be used under normal operation, or whether the aero-loads should be reduced, or the blade repaired on site, or taken down replaced with a new blade or repaired on shore. Such an approach will allow the service life of blades to be decided by their damage state. There is thus potential for life extension beyond the original planned service life typically now 20 years for healthy blades that do not possess significant damage.

A condition-based approach also has the advantage that it is not critical to be able to calculate the aero-loads with high accuracy on all individual rotor blades in an offshore wind turbine park, since the damage evolution can be assessed on the basis of the sensor signal.

The proposed approach, figure 4 , consists of condition monitoring to detect damage, NDI methods to characterize the damage, and damage and fracture mechanical modelling to predict future damage evolution [ 19 — 21 ], creating the science-based knowledge required to make a decision about what to do. In the following section of the paper, the material properties contributing to structural damage tolerance are presented.

The expanded design and manufacture process showed in figure 3 will include consideration of the approach for maintenance and repair that is to be adopted for the entire group of structures, and the integrated sensorization necessary to achieve remote characterization of the material and structural condition. Finally, the vision is presented of offshore wind farms designed using smart structure technology made possible by this deeper understanding of material behaviour.

The loads on each material point within a rotor blade structure can be characterized mechanically by considering a small volume of the material. In a loaded wind turbine rotor blade, distributed damage e. The distributed damage may be characterized by the crack area per volume or the number of broken fibres per volume. Damage induces nonlinearity in the stress—strain relationship. Therefore, nonlinear stress—strain laws must be used to describe the mechanical response of materials experiencing distributed damage figure 5 a.

Distributed damage may over time lead to localized damage. With increasing separation corresponding to more localized damage , the traction that the fracture process zone can transmit decreases. The traction—separation law is taken to be a material property, being the same law along the entire fracture process zone. The area under the traction—separation curve is the work of the traction, i. Away from the localized damage, the material is unloaded along the dotted part of the stress—strain curve a.

Owing to the difference in stress levels for different parts of the blade and uneven distribution of the manufacturing defects, the damage state may vary from part to part between undamaged material, distributed damage and localized damage. Depending on the conditions, the localized damage may either exhibit stable or unstable crack growth.

Offshore wind turbine rotor blades will be subjected to high extreme wind loads heavy storms and lower, varying loads from wind changes and rotor rotation.

Cyclic loads may induce fatigue damage evolution, i. The crack can then become so long that it leads to unstable, fast crack propagation at the maximum cyclic load, potentially leading to structural failure of the rotor blade.

Advanced Wind Turbine Technology

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Wind Power Generation and Wind Turbine Design

Calculates the shape parameters k and scale parameters A of the Weibull distribution per direction sector. To evaluate the potential energy production of a site the observed data of a particular measurement period must be generalized to a wind speed distribution. This is commonly done by fitting the Weibull function to the data. The resulting Weibull distribution characterizes the wind regime on the site and can directly be used for the calculation of the potential energy production of a wind turbine see aep.

Manuscript received June 11, ; final manuscript received February 12, ; published online April 15, Editor: Harrison M. Tong, W. June 1, June ; 6 :

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Damage tolerance and structural monitoring for wind turbine blades

Действительно хорошая новость. ГЛАВА 54 - Пусти. А потом раздался нечеловеческий крик.

Раздраженный водитель резко нажал на педаль тормоза, и Беккер почувствовал, как перемещается куда-то вес его тела. Он попробовал плюхнуться на заднее сиденье, но промахнулся. Тело его сначала оказалось в воздухе, а потом - на жестком полу. Из тени на авенида дель Сид появилась фигура человека. Поправив очки в железной оправе, человек посмотрел вслед удаляющемуся автобусу. Дэвид Беккер исчез, но это ненадолго. Из всех севильских автобусов мистер Беккер выбрал пользующийся дурной славой 27-й маршрут.

Панк наконец позволил себе улыбнуться. - Заметано. - Ну вот и хорошо. Девушка, которую я ищу, может быть. У нее красно-бело-синие волосы. Парень фыркнул.

1. Introduction

 Выход в Интернет. Здесь есть браузер. Соши кивнула. - Лучше всего - Нетскейп. Сьюзан сжала ее руку.

С такими темпами шифровалка сумеет вскрывать не больше двух шифров в сутки. В то время как даже при нынешнем рекорде - сто пятьдесят вскрытых шифров в день - они не успевают расшифровывать всю перехватываемую информацию. - Танкадо звонил мне в прошлом месяце, - сказал Стратмор, прервав размышления Сьюзан. - Танкадо звонил вам? - удивилась. Он кивнул: - Чтобы предупредить. - Предупредить.

Сьюзан кивнула. - То есть вы хотите сказать, Танкадо не волновало, что кто-то начнет разыскивать Северную Дакоту, потому что его имя и адрес защищены компанией ARA. - Верно. Сьюзан на секунду задумалась. - ARA обслуживает в основном американских клиентов.

Damage tolerance and structural monitoring for wind turbine blades

Она быстро подняла глаза и увидела возвращающегося Грега Хейла. Он приближался к двери. - Черт его дери! - почти беззвучно выругалась Сьюзан, оценивая расстояние до своего места и понимая, что не успеет до него добежать. Хейл был уже слишком близко. Она метнулась к буфету в тот момент, когда дверь со звуковым сигналом открылась, и, остановившись у холодильника, рванула на себя дверцу.

ФБР имеет возможность прослушивать телефонные разговоры, но это вовсе не значит, что оно прослушивает. - Будь у них штат побольше, прослушивали. Сьюзан оставила это замечание без ответа.

Мои люди несколько дней пытаются его взломать. - Это зашифрованный вирус, болван; ваше счастье, что вам не удалось его вскрыть. - Но… - Сделка отменяется! - крикнул Стратмор.  - Я не Северная Дакота.

wind power generation and wind turbine design

Эти аргументы она слышала уже много. Гипотетическое будущее правительство служило главным аргументом Фонда электронных границ.

Иногда даже, если жертва внушительной комплекции, она не убивает вовсе. - У него было больное сердце, - сказал Фонтейн. Смит поднял брови.

В поле его зрения попало окно. Здесь. Халохот приблизился к внешней стене и стал целиться. Ноги Беккера скрылись из виду за поворотом, и Халохот выстрелил, но тут же понял, что выстрел пришелся в пустоту.

Слова Сьюзан словно парализовали его, но через минуту он возобновил попытки высвободиться. - Он убьет. Я чувствую. Ведь я слишком много знаю.

Wei Tong Kollmorgen Corporation, Virginia, USA.
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2 Comments

  1. Gyconneto

    The use of computer in education pdf genetics from genes to genomes 4th edition solution manual pdf

    16.05.2021 at 14:40 Reply
  2. Gamal A.

    The paper proposes a methodology for reliable design and maintenance of wind turbine rotor blades using a condition monitoring approach and a damage tolerance index coupling the material and structure.

    16.05.2021 at 20:27 Reply

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