File Name: oil and gas industry in nigeria .zip
This study examined the extent to which the Local Content Policy has impacted on human capital development and sustainable business performance in the Nigerian Oil and GasIndustry, following the enactment of enabling legislation. Primary data were employed, which were obtained through the administration of structured questionnaire to purposively selected oil servicing companies in Niger Delta, the home to more than eighty percent of the indigenous oil companies in Nigeria. The results showed that Local Content Policy had significant impact on the development of human capital in the Oil and Gas Industry.
- Transportation In Nigeria's Oil and Gas Industry: An Environmental Challenge
- Petroleum industry in Nigeria
- Petroleum industry in Nigeria
The petroleum industry is the backbone of the Nigerian economy. Nigeria is the sixth largest producer of crude oil in the world. Its oil industry generates over 95 per cent of the country's foreign revenue, and about 80 per cent of government revenue.
Transportation In Nigeria's Oil and Gas Industry: An Environmental Challenge
Nigeria is the largest oil and gas producer in Africa. Crude oil from the Niger delta basin comes in two types: light, and comparatively heavy — the lighter around 36 gravity and the heavier, 20—25 gravity. Both types are paraffinic and low in sulfur. The history of oil exploration in Nigeria dates back to when Nigerian Bitumen Corporation conducted exploratory work in the country; at the onset of World War I the firm's operations were stopped.
Due to the lack of technological and financial resources of small oil companies, large oil companies took over the exploration of commercial oil in the country. Thereafter, licenses were given to D'Arcy Exploration Company and Whitehall Petroleum but neither company found oil of commercial value and they returned their licenses in The company began exploratory work in The consortium was granted license to explore oil all over the territory of Nigeria but the acreage allotted to the company in the original license was reduced in and then between and Drilling activities started in with the first test well drilled in Owerri area.
Oil was discovered in non-commercial quantities at Akata, near Eket in In the pursuit of commercially available petroleum, Shell-BP found oil in Oloibiri , Nigeria in Other important oil wells discovered during the period were Afam and Bomu in Ogoni territory. Production of crude oil began in , and in a total of , tonnes of crude oil was exported. Towards the end of the s, non-British firms were granted license to explore for oil: Mobil in , Tenneco in , Gulf Oil and later Chevron in , Agip in , and Elf in Prior to the discovery of oil, Nigeria like many other African countries strongly relied on agricultural exports to other countries to supply their economy.
Many Nigerians thought the developers were looking for palm oil. The first oil field began production in After that, the economy of Nigeria should have seemingly have experienced a strong increase. However, competition for the profits from oil created a great level of terror and conflict for those living in the region.
Many citizens of Nigeria believe that they have not been able to see the economic benefits of oil companies in the state. Additionally, Nigerian government officials have remained majority shareholders in the profits created by the production of Nigerian oil, leading to government capturing of nearly all oil production, and citizens are not seeing socioeconomic benefits, and insist that oil companies should compensate people.
Its reserves make Nigeria the tenth most petroleum-rich nation, and by the far the most affluent in Africa. Nearly all of the country's primary reserves are concentrated in around the delta of the Niger River , but off-shore rigs are also prominent in the well-endowed coastal region.
Nigeria is one of the few major oil-producing nations still capable of increasing its oil output. Unlike most of the other OPEC countries, Nigeria is not projected to exceed peak production until at least More recently, production has been disrupted intermittently by the protests of the Niger Delta's inhabitants, who feel they are being exploited.
Nigeria has a total of oil fields and wells in operation according to the Department of Petroleum Resources. Most of Nigeria's oil fields are small and scattered, and as of , these small unproductive fields accounted for This contrasts with the sixteen largest fields which produced As a result of the numerous small fields, an extensive and well-developed pipeline network has been engineered to transport the crude oil.
Also because of the lack of highly productive fields, money from the jointly operated with the federal government companies is constantly directed towards petroleum exploration and production. Nigeria's petroleum is classified mostly as "light" and "sweet", as the oil is largely free of sulfur. Nigeria is the largest producer of sweet oil in OPEC. This sweet oil is similar in composition to petroleum extracted from the North Sea. This crude oil is known as "Bonny light".
However, Nigeria ceased exports to the US in July because of the impact of shale production in America; India is now the largest consumer of Nigerian oil. There are six petroleum exportation terminals in the country. Shell owns two, while Mobil, Chevron, Texaco, and Agip own one each. Texaco operates the Pennington Terminal. Oil companies in Africa investigate offshore production as an alternative area of production. By expanding to deep water drilling the possible sources for finding new oil reserves is expanded.
Angola and Nigeria are the largest oil producers in Africa. In Nigeria, the deepwater sector still has a large avenue to expand and develop. The deepwater extraction plants are less disturbed by local militant attacks, seizures due to civil conflicts, and sabotage. An open-air market for illegal crude oil operates off the Niger Delta, called the Togo Triangle. The biggest natural gas initiative is the Nigerian Liquified Natural Gas Company , which is operated jointly by several companies and the state.
It began exploration and production in In , the government prepared a Gas Master Plan that was intended to promote natural gas production and encourage the supply of natural gas to domestic power stations so as to help alleviate the country's electricity shortages. The pipeline would allow for transportation of natural gas to Benin , Ghana, Togo , and Cote d'Ivoire.
The majority of Nigeria's natural gas is flared off and it is estimated that Nigeria loses It is estimated that demand and consumption of petroleum in Nigeria grows at a rate of Nigeria is Africa's largest oil producer and has been a member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries since The Nigerian economy is heavily dependent on the oil sector, which, accounts for over 95 percent of export earnings and about 40 percent of government revenues, according to the International Monetary Fund.
According to the International Energy Agency , Nigeria produced about 2. Nigeria is an important oil supplier to the United States. For the last nine years, the United States has imported between percent of its crude oil from Nigeria; however, United States import data for the first half of show that Nigerian crude is down to a 5 percent share of total United States crude imports.
According to the International Energy Agency, in , approximately 33 percent of Nigeria's crude exports were sent to the United States, making Nigeria its fourth largest foreign oil supplier.
Although total crude imports into the United States are falling, imports from Nigeria have declined at a steeper rate, according to the International Energy Agency. The main reasons underlying this trend are that some Gulf Coast refiners have reduced Nigerian imports in favor of domestically-produced crude, and that two refineries in the U.
East Coast, which were significant buyers of Nigerian crude, were idled in late As a result, Nigerian crude as a share of total United States imports has fallen to 5 percent in the first half of , down from 10 and 11 percent in the first half of and , respectively, according to the International Energy Agency. Shell has been working in Nigeria since , and currently dominates gas production in the country, as the Niger Delta, which contains most of Nigeria's gas resources, also houses most of Shell's hydrocarbon assets.
Prior to its official amalgamation into the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria by the military forces of the British Empire in , the territory of Nigeria was a loose collection of autonomous states, villages, and ethnic communities. Many of these established themselves as pillars of art, trade, and politics in West Africa as late as the 19th century; four of these cultural entities, the Hausa-Fulani , the Igbo sometimes spelled Ibo , the Yoruba and the Efik grew extremely prominent in the region before the arrival of foreigners, dictated British colonial policies, and dominate national politics in Nigeria to this day.
The modern Hausa and Fulani societies in northern Nigeria are the cultural successors of the Sokoto Caliphate , a theocratic state founded by Muslim reformer empire-maker Uthman dan Fodio in Geographically isolated in the north, the Caliphate was governed by Islamic laws as prescribed by dan Fodio's Kitab al-Farq and maintained greater links commercially and culturally to North Africa and the Arab states than to West Africa and the Atlantic.
By contrast, the Yoruba , the Igbo and the Efik in the south had regularly experienced contact with Europeans since at least the 16th century. A minority of southerners converted to Christianity even prior to the establishment of permanent British control, but the majority followed traditional indigenous religions, worshipping myriad deities with vast domains spanning both cosmic and terrestrial spheres.
Coastal Nigerians established thriving trade both regionally and abroad, fashioning the coast into a hub for products like palm oil, a good sought after by rapidly industrialising Europe, while also serving as key source for the slave trade prior to its international banning the region came to be known as the Slave Coast as a result. The Niger Delta region, which is roughly synonymous with the Niger Delta province in location and the contemporary heart of the petroleum industry, is and was a zone of dense cultural diversity and is currently inhabited by roughly forty ethnic groups speaking an estimated dialects.
Some of the more relevant ethnic groups in the western part of the Niger Delta region include the Ijaw , Itsekiri , and Ogoni. The Ijaw sometimes spelled Ijo , the fourth most populous tribe in Nigeria and by far the largest in the Delta region, lived during late medieval times in small fishing villages within the inlets of the delta; however by the 16th century, as the slave trade grew in importance, Ijaw port cities like Bonny and Brass developed into major trading states which served as major exporters of fish and other goods regionally.
Other states such as those of Itsekiri domain of Warri sprang up at this time as well. Their capital city of Calabar , located at the coastal southeast of Nigeria eastern Niger Delta served as the major trading and shipping center during the pre-colonial and colonial period.
Calabar also served as the first capital of Nigeria and the point of entry of Western religion and Western education into southeastern Nigeria. The combined population of the Ibibio , Annang , and Efik people is the fourth largest language group in Nigeria. Even before the consolidation of British control over all of present-day Nigeria's borders in from the protectorates of Southern and Northern Nigeria , British forces had begun imposing drastic political and economic policies on the Nigerian people which would lead to important consequences in the future.
Originally this was done primarily through the government-owned Royal Niger Company. The company was crucial in securing most of Nigeria's major ports and monopolised coastal trade; this resulted in the severing of the ties which had linked the area to the flourishing West African regional trade network, in favour of the exportation of cheap natural resources and cash crops to industrialising nations.
Most of the population eventually abandoned food production for such market-dependent crops peanuts and cotton in the north, palm oil in the east, and cocoa in the west. After , the north was permitted a system of indirect rule under authoritarian leaders, while in the south the British exercised control directly.
Interest in Nigerian oil originated in with an ordinance making any oil and mineral under Nigerian soil legal property of the Crown. By the colonial government had granted the state-sponsored company, Shell then known as Shell D'Arcy a monopoly over the exploration of all minerals and petroleum throughout the entire colony. Until the late s concessions on production and exploration continued to be the exclusive domain of the company, then known as Shell - British Petroleum.
However, other firms became interested and by the early s Mobil , Texaco , and Gulf had purchased concessions. In October Nigeria gained full independence from Britain with the British monarch continuing to preside as Head of State , but the country quickly altered its relationship with its former colonizers by declaring Nigeria a republic of three federated states the Eastern, Western and Northern Regions.
The federal military government which assumed power under General Aguiyi-Ironsi was unable to quiet ethnic tensions or produce a constitution acceptable to all sections of the country. In fact, its efforts to abolish the federal structure exacerbated the growing unrest and led to another coup, led by largely northern officers in July of the same year.
This second coup established the regime of Major General Yakubu Gowon. Subsequently, the massacre of thousands of Igbo in the north prompted hundreds of thousands to return to the southeast, where increasingly strong Igbo secessionist sentiment emerged under the leadership of the Igbo military governor Lieutenant Colonel Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu. With tensions stoked between the Eastern region and Gowon's federal government, on 4—5 January , in compliance with Ojukwu's desire to meet for talks only on neutral soil, a summit attended by Gowon, Ojukwu and other members of the Supreme Military Council was held at Aburi in Ghana, the stated purpose of which was to resolve all outstanding conflicts and establish Nigeria as a confederation of regions.
The outcome of this summit was the Aburi Accord , the differing interpretations of which would soon cause Ojukwu to declare Biafran independence and plunge Nigeria into civil war. Igbo secessionism arose in part from the pogroms in the North that were aimed at Eastern people, most specifically, the Igbo. However, since the southeast encompassed most of the petroleum-rich Niger Delta , the prospect emerged of the Eastern Region gaining self-sufficiency and increasing prosperity.
The exclusion of easterners from power caused many in the east to fear that oil revenues would be used to benefit areas in the north and west rather than their own. The desire to accrue profits from oil revenues combined with ethnic tensions acted as a catalyst for the Igbo-spearheaded secession.
Additionally, despite his denials in later years, it appears that Ojukwu's insistence on secession at the time was heavily influenced by his knowledge of the extent of the area's oil reserves. It was also during this period that, again thanks to the Americans, the opacity and concomitant corruption of Nigerian oil began to crystallise.
On top of scores of deaths, the war had a largely negative impact on the oil industry.
Petroleum industry in Nigeria
This paper aims to explore the question of the role of business in development from a contextual point of view. The context is Nigeria and its development challenges contrasted with the Nigerian oil industry, which dominates the Nigerian economy as the core resource. It examines the country's attempt to reconnect the oil industry business with development through the Nigerian Petroleum Industry Bill PIB. It adopts a conceptual approach analyzing the current debates and delays surrounding the bill in line with themes of human development and corporate social responsibility CSR. It therefore examines and questions the linkages between business, development, law and governance. This paper is an exploratory discussion that examines the potential and limitations of linking business to development agendas in an ongoing context. This is because the Nigerian Petroleum Industry Bill, originally drafted in , has not yet passed into law at the end of
Nigeria is the largest oil and gas producer in Africa. Crude oil from the Niger delta basin comes in two types: light, and comparatively heavy — the lighter around 36 gravity and the heavier, 20—25 gravity. Both types are paraffinic and low in sulfur. The history of oil exploration in Nigeria dates back to when Nigerian Bitumen Corporation conducted exploratory work in the country; at the onset of World War I the firm's operations were stopped. Due to the lack of technological and financial resources of small oil companies, large oil companies took over the exploration of commercial oil in the country. Thereafter, licenses were given to D'Arcy Exploration Company and Whitehall Petroleum but neither company found oil of commercial value and they returned their licenses in
Petroleum industry in Nigeria
Ты же знаешь, что я бы осталась, - сказала она, задержавшись в дверях, - но у меня все же есть кое-какая гордость. Я просто не желаю играть вторую скрипку - тем более по отношению к подростку. - Моя жена вовсе не подросток, - возмутился Бринкерхофф. - Она просто так себя ведет.
Новый стандарт шифрования приказал долго жить.
Да? - Меган внезапно насторожилась. Беккер достал из кармана бумажник. - Конечно, я буду счастлив тебе заплатить. - И он начал отсчитывать купюры. Глядя, как он шелестит деньгами, Меган вскрикнула и изменилась в лице, по-видимому ложно истолковав его намерения. Она испуганно посмотрела на вращающуюся дверь… как бы прикидывая расстояние. До выхода было метров тридцать.
Он бросил взгляд на клавиатуру и начал печатать, даже не повернув к себе монитор. Его пальцы набирали слова медленно, но решительно. Дорогие друзья, сегодня я ухожу из жизни… При таком исходе никто ничему не удивится. Никто не задаст вопросов. Никто ни в чем его не обвинит.
Чутье подсказывало Беккеру, что это открытие не сулит ему ничего хорошего. - Все равно расскажите. ГЛАВА 15 Сьюзан Флетчер расположилась за компьютерным терминалом Третьего узла.
Клушар на мгновение задумался и покачал головой: - Понятия не имею.