Modernisation And Dependency Theories Of Development Pdf
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- A critique of modernization and dependency theories in Africa: critical assessment
- Modernization Theory
- Dependency theory
In International Political Economy, there are competing theoretical perspectives regarding the question of global inequalities and the North-South divide. The aim of this essay is to examine how traditional dependency theory, which was popular in the s and s as a criticism of modernization theory, can still be a useful tool for explaining global inequalities despite the challenges of the 21 st century.
A critique of modernization and dependency theories in Africa: critical assessment
Prebisch and his colleagues were troubled by the fact that economic growth in the advanced industrialized countries did not necessarily lead to growth in the poorer countries. Indeed, their studies suggested that economic activity in the richer countries often led to serious economic problems in the poorer countries. Such a possibility was not predicted by neoclassical theory, which had assumed that economic growth was beneficial to all Pareto optimal even if the benefits were not always equally shared. Prebisch's initial explanation for the phenomenon was very straightforward: poor countries exported primary commodities to the rich countries who then manufactured products out of those commodities and sold them back to the poorer countries. The "Value Added" by manufacturing a usable product always cost more than the primary products used to create those products.
Development theory is a collection of theories about how desirable change in society is best achieved. Such theories draw on a variety of social science disciplines and approaches. In this article, multiple theories are discussed, as are recent developments with regard to these theories. Depending on which theory that is being looked at, there are different explanations to the process of development and their inequalities. Modernization theory is used to analyze the processes in which modernization in societies take place. The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development. The idea is that development assistance targeted at those particular aspects can lead to modernization of 'traditional' or 'backward' societies.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Matunhu Published Sociology. The way states and development specialists rationalize how to commit economic resources to development is influenced, to a greater extent by their level of persuasion towards specific development theories. The conclusion is that both theories have failed to help develop Africa. The discourse pins hope on the African Renaissance theory of development.
Dependency theory , an approach to understanding economic underdevelopment that emphasizes the putative constraints imposed by the global political and economic order. According to dependency theory, underdevelopment is mainly caused by the peripheral position of affected countries in the world economy. Typically, underdeveloped countries offer cheap labour and raw materials on the world market. These resources are sold to advanced economies, which have the means to transform them into finished goods. Underdeveloped countries end up purchasing the finished products at high prices, depleting the capital they might otherwise devote to upgrading their own productive capacity. The result is a vicious cycle that perpetuates the division of the world economy between a rich core and a poor periphery. While moderate dependency theorists, such as the Brazilian sociologist Fernando Henrique Cardoso who served as the president of Brazil in — , considered some level of development to be possible within this system, more-radical scholars, such as the German American economic historian Andre Gunder Frank, argued that the only way out of dependency was the creation of a noncapitalist socialist national economy.
Explanations of global stratification parallel those of U. One type of explanation takes an individual approach by in effect blaming the people in the poorest nations for their own poverty, while a second explanation takes a structural approach in blaming the plight of poor nations on their treatment by the richest ones. Again there is evidence to support both types of explanations, but many sociologists favor the structural explanation. Table 9. The individual explanation is called modernization theory McClelland, ; Rostow, These cultural traits include a willingness to work hard, to abandon tradition in favor of new ways of thinking and doing things, and to adopt a future orientation rather than one focused on maintaining present conditions. Modernization theory has direct relevance for the experience of Western Europe.
Dependency theory focuses on the limits that historical relationships, often deriving from colonialism, place on the development of poor countries. Modernisation.
Modernization theory is a description and explanation of the processes of transformation from traditional or underdeveloped societies to modern societies. In the words of one of the major proponents, "Historically, modernization is the process of change towards those types of social, economic, and political systems that have developed in Western Europe and North America from the seventeenth century to the nineteenth and have then spread to other European countries and in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to the South American, Asian, and African continents" Eisenstadt , p. Modernization theory has been one of the major perspectives in the sociology of national development and underdevelopment since the s. Primary attention has focused on ways in which past and present premodern societies become modern i. In general, modernization theorists are concerned with economic growth within societies as indicated, for example, by measures of gross national product.
While the three main sociological paradigms all help explain global stratification, there are two major theories that developed out of the structural-functional and conflict theories that are best positioned to explain global inequality: modernization theory and dependency theory. Modernization theory posits that countries go through evolutionary stages and that industrialization and improved technology are the keys to forward progress. Dependency theory, on the other hand, sees modernization theory as Eurocentric and patronizing. According to dependency theory, global inequality is the result of core nations creating a cycle of dependence by exploiting resources and labor in peripheral and semi-peripheral countries. Modernization theory comes out of the structural-functional viewpoint, as it frames inequality as a function of industrial and cultural differences between nations.
Welcome to sociological studies. Got a great lesson. We're going to cover modernization theory as opposed to dependency theory. Both theoretical explanations of global inequality.
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