Maslow Theory Of Motivation Advantages And Disadvantages Pdf
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- Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory of Motivation
- Maslow’s Theory of Motivation: Merits and Criticisms
- Pros and Cons of the Motivational Theories
Maslow theory of motivation as the name suggest is a theory of motivation according to which the majority of people will have set pattern of needs which can be segregated into five parts and the individual will first fulfil the basic or bottom of pyramid needs which is physiological needs like food, shelter clothing, after which he or she will move to next level of pyramid and fulfil safety needs which include things like job security, financial security. The biggest advantage of Maslow theory of motivation is that it is very simple to understand and even layman can understand and relate to this theory because we all go through one or other stage of needs pyramid during our lifetime. Hence as far labor is concerned his or her need will always be limited to lower level of need pyramid that is food, shelter and clothing but as far as a billionaire businessman is concerned his or her top priority will be top level of pyramid and that is self-esteem or sense of achieving all things and he or she will never think about food, shelter, clothing as these needs have been fulfilled long back. Another advantage of this theory is that it gives consideration to basic human nature that is demanding more as lower level needs are satisfied. It can be better understood with the help of an example suppose a small kid is hungry and he or she has given two options one is food and other is toys than he or she will not select toys rather he or she will eat food first and then demand the toys.
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory of Motivation
While survival is the need for all, not all the human effort is directed at it. There are more needs beyond survival and everyone can advance to higher levels of needs where one is sensitive to dimensions like harmony, beauty, justice, perfection and search for the true purpose of existence.
However, according to Maslow, the higher needs are different because they do not arise out of deficiency. From this perception, he presented his hierarchy of needs. At the base of the hierarchy, he placed the psychological or basic needs, and from there onwards, the needs progressed towards the highest orders. The next was safety needs, representing the need for some kind of structure, order, safety, and security. Love and belongingness needs were placed next and Maslow took a position that even these were survival needs.
When love needs are dominant, the individual looks for relations and intimacy desires to love and recognition from others. Beyond love and belongingness, Maslow presented the esteem needs, which were actually divided into two parts. The lower esteem represents the need to be respected by others, achieve status, recognition from others, reputation and dominance. A higher form of esteem is self-esteem, which represents the need to develop self-respect, confidence, competence, and mastery.
As long as they are not satisfied, the individual will strive to fulfill them in order to ease the tension and imbalance created by their deficiency. If an individual feels satisfied on all these levels, he would still search for the meaning of his existence and began to explore, discover and utilize his true or full potential. This is the need of a person to discover his true potential and once evoked, never stops growing. The self-actualization person becomes autonomous and spontaneous in the sense that he does not blindly follow any culture or custom in order to gain acceptance or approval or under any compulsion.
Others also commented that his theory could not be of practical use to managers, as it merely classified the needs that everyone has. Self-actualization Needs: These needs are found in those individuals whose previous four needs are fulfilled.
This includes the desire to become what you are capable of becoming. Fulfillment generated by learning new skills, taking challenges, social service, gaining more knowledge, being aesthetic is some of the self-actualization needs. Social Needs: Man is a social animal. He needs love, affection, the feeling of belongingness from his family and friends, membership of groups and unions to fulfill his social needs.
Safety Needs: After psychological needs, comes safety needs which include job security, financial security, physical security, health security, family security and safety-driven by insurance, etc. Physiological Needs: This includes the basic needs of an individual like food, shelter, clothes, air, water which a person needs to survive in this world. In short, psychological needs related to the survival and maintenance of human life.
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Maslow’s Theory of Motivation: Merits and Criticisms
Needs-based motivation theories stem from the understanding that all motivation comes from an individual's desire to fulfill or achieve a need. This also states that human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs, and typically certain lower needs must be satisfied before higher needs can be satisfied. This Wiki explores Abraham H. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory, Clayton P. Encouraged by his parents to seek academic success, he began studying law at the City College of New York. After transferring briefly to Cornell, Maslow returned to New York before marrying and moving to the University of Wisconsin.
Abraham Maslow, born in to Jewish immigrant parents from Kiev, was an American psychologist who was raised and educated in Brooklyn, New York. He would continue his education in graduate-level psychology at the University of Wisconsin. Maslow eventually became a fellow at the Laughlin Institute in California, where he stayed until his death in The order in which the needs classifications is listed is not a coincidence. According to Maslow, physiological needs must be met before those under safety, and only after physiological and safety requirements are met will someone begin looking at those under belonging and love. Needs at the physiological level are those that are almost primitive — they include things like:. These are first-order needs that must be met continuously for the individual to be satisfied — if any are not , the person feels increasingly displeased.
While survival is the need for all, not all the human effort is directed at it. There are more needs beyond survival and everyone can advance to higher levels of needs where one is sensitive to dimensions like harmony, beauty, justice, perfection and search for the true purpose of existence. However, according to Maslow, the higher needs are different because they do not arise out of deficiency. From this perception, he presented his hierarchy of needs. At the base of the hierarchy, he placed the psychological or basic needs, and from there onwards, the needs progressed towards the highest orders.
The biggest advantage of Maslow theory of motivation is that it is very simple to understand and even layman can understand and relate to this.
Pros and Cons of the Motivational Theories
Successful marketing persuades a prospective client to purchase the product or service you are selling. One of the most effective ways to accomplish this is to appeal directly to one or more of his basic needs. Many business students are taught to view Maslow's hierarchy of needs as a guideline against which to target marketing efforts, arguing that success depends on meeting one of Maslow's identified needs. Although other needs theories also have relevance, Maslow's needs hierarchy remains the foundation for many fruitful psychological approaches to marketing. In the most basic sense, Maslow's hierarchy identifies five primary areas of needs experienced by most humans.
What makes people do what they do? What motivates them to make changes? Motivational theories try to explain why people make the decisions that they make, while providing some explanation for how they can motivate themselves and others to improve their behaviors.
One advantage of Maslow's hierarchy of needs is its perceptive insight into human nature, a disadvantage is that the hierarchy fails to account for cultural or social differences between individuals. In , Maslow developed his hierarchy of needs. He claimed that people will not be motivated by their higher-order needs, such as the need for self-actualization, until the lower-order needs, such as need for food and shelter, have been met. A basic advantage of Maslow's need theory is how well it serves to interpret human behavior and motivation.
Maslow focused in particular on the needs of employees in the workplace. His theory proposes that there are five types of needs that employees need to have fulfilled in the workplace for them to reach their full potential. The five needs come in a particular order. When one of the needs is satisfied, the employee would be motivated by having the opportunity to meet the next set of needs in the hierarchy. Maslow was awarded the accolade of Humanist of the Year by the American Humanist Association in
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