drilling and blasting equipment pdf

Drilling And Blasting Equipment Pdf

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Drilling and blasting is the controlled use of explosives and other methods such as gas pressure blasting pyrotechnics, to break rock for excavation. It is practiced most often in mining , quarrying and civil engineering such as dam , tunnel or road construction. The result of rock blasting is often known as a rock cut.

Drilling, Blasting, & Ripping

Drilling and blasting is the controlled use of explosives and other methods such as gas pressure blasting pyrotechnics, to break rock for excavation.

It is practiced most often in mining , quarrying and civil engineering such as dam , tunnel or road construction. The result of rock blasting is often known as a rock cut. Drilling and blasting currently utilizes many different varieties of explosives with different compositions and performance properties.

Higher velocity explosives are used for relatively hard rock in order to shatter and break the rock, while low velocity explosives are used in soft rocks to generate more gas pressure and a greater heaving effect.

For instance, an early 20th-century blasting manual compared the effects of black powder to that of a wedge, and dynamite to that of a hammer. Before the advent of tunnel boring machines TBMs , drilling and blasting was the only economical way of excavating long tunnels through hard rock, where digging is not possible.

The decision whether to construct a tunnel using a TBM or using a drill and blast method includes a number of factors. Tunnel length is a key issue that needs to be addressed because large TBMs for a rock tunnel have a high capital cost, but because they are usually quicker than a drill and blast tunnel the price per metre of tunnel is lower. Managing ground conditions can also have a significant effect on the choice with different methods suited to different hazards in the ground.

The innovation spread quickly throughout Europe and the Americas. The standard method for blasting rocks was to drill a hole to a considerable depth and deposit a charge of gunpowder at the further end of the hole and then fill the remainder of the hole with clay or some other soft mineral substance, well rammed, to make it as tight as possible. A wire laid in the hole during this process was then removed and replaced with a train of gunpowder.

This train was ignited by a slow match , often consisting simply of brown paper smeared with grease, intended to burn long enough to allow the person who fires it enough time to reach a place of safety.

The uncertainty of this method led to many accidents and various measures were introduced to improve safety for those involved. One was replacing the iron wire, by which the passage for the gunpowder is formed, with one of copper. Another was the use of a safety fuse.

This consisted of small train of gunpowder inserted in a water-proof cord, which burns at a steady and uniform rate. This in turn was later replaced by a long piece of wire that was used to deliver an electric charge to ignite the explosive. The first to use this method for underwater blasting was Charles Pasley who employed it in to break up the wreck of the British warship HMS Royal George which had become a shipping hazard at Spithead.

An early major use of blasting to remove rock occurred in when the British civil engineer William Cubitt used 18, lbs of gunpowder to remove a foot-high chalk cliff near Dover as part of the construction of the South Eastern Railway. While drilling and blasting saw limited use in pre-industrial times using gunpowder such as with the Blue Ridge Tunnel in the United States, built in the s , it was not until more powerful and safer explosives , such as dynamite patented , as well as powered drills were developed, that its potential was fully realised.

In , 2. In this year the Soviet Union was the leader in total volume with 2. The positions and depths of the holes and the amount of explosive each hole receives are determined by a carefully constructed pattern, which, together with the correct timing of the individual explosions, will guarantee that the tunnel will have an approximately circular cross-section.

During operation, blasting mats may be used to contain the blast, suppress dust and noise, for fly rock prevention and sometimes to direct the blast.

As a tunnel or excavation progresses the roof and side walls need to be supported to stop the rock falling into the excavation. The philosophy and methods for rock support vary widely but typical rock support systems can include:. Typically a rock support system would include a number of these support methods, each intended to undertake a specific role in the rock support such as the combination of rock bolting and shotcrete.

Blast-hole drilling at the Bingham Canyon Mine , Utah. Note the pattern of drill holes being prepared for blasting. Sideling Hill road cut formed by rock blasting. Map describing the clearance zones during blasting in a limestone quarry. These notices are produced by surveyors see topography.

Blast hole drilling in a dolerite quarry at Prospect Hill , Sydney , Australia. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Loading blast holes with ANFO. Rock surface newly blasted. This is called pre-split, it's a technique to leave a smooth face.

The Shot-Firer's Guide. Tunelling and tunnel mechanics: a rational approach to tunnelling. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Rock Blasting and Explosives Engineering. CRC Press. CBC News. Retrieved 26 September Categories : Tunnel construction Mining Explosives Civil engineering. Hidden categories: Articles needing additional references from February All articles needing additional references Commons category link is on Wikidata Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from The American Cyclopaedia Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from The American Cyclopaedia with a Wikisource reference Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference.

Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rock blasting.

Drilling Process Optimization

Order your copy here. Quarrying as a process comprises a number of consecutive sub-processes — drilling, blasting, secondary breaking, loading, hauling, crushing, screening, stockpiling and delivery of saleable products. Each quarry is unique and needs to be planned carefully in terms of both working practices and the selection of equipment in order to maximize the profitability of the operation. The selection of drilling equipment and drilling tools has a significant impact on the subsequent processing stages, such as explosives consumption powder factor , rock fragmentation, the amount of oversize boulders and the need for secondary breaking, the formation of toes and floor humps and their affect on rock loadability, loading and hauling capacities, and the design of crushing plants. Today, increased attention is directed towards end-product quality such as cubicity and a minimized amount of micro-cracks in the aggregates. Owing to technical and economical consequences in the following stages of the excavation process, thorough attention must be paid to the proper selection of drilling equipment in terms of hole size, hole length, performance, hole quality and ergonomics.

All of our blasting engineers undergo training in blast design, software, and measuring tools, set by the relevant international organizations. We are using the most high tech drilling machines and blasting equipment in the Middle East. In consequences, ASCOM's blasting department can undertake the following services on behalf of our customers:. Cost Optimization Run Factor Studies. Coordination for Time Saving. Efficiency Ranking and Rising.

Blast hole Drilling is a technique used in mining whereby a hole is drilled into the surface of the rock, packed with explosive material, and detonated. The aim of this technique is to induce cracks in the inner geology of the surrounding rock, in order to facilitate further drilling and associated mining activity. Blast hole drilling is one of the primary surface drilling techniques employed in mining operations today. Blast hole drilling is traditionally used wherever the mining company wants to explore the mineral composition or potential mineral yield of the area demarcated for their mining interests. Blast holes are thus a fundamental step in the exploratory mining process, and can be employed in both surface mining operations and underground mining operations to varying degrees with varying effects or results. Blast hole drilling can also be employed in quarrying endeavors.

Drilling and blasting

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Drilling, blasting and ripping are fundamental processes in just about any quarry and aggregate operation. But it takes the right machines to perform these essential tasks time after time — and without breaking down in the middle of a project. You can learn more about our Cat drilling, blasting and ripping products by clicking on their product descriptions.

Drilling and blasting

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Influence of blasting charges and delays on the energy consumption of mechanical crushing. The research is designed to appreciate the relationships between the energy provided for size reduction and the resistances to size reduction. For this purpose, Key Performance Indicators KPIs are used to describe the possible improvements on the energy consumption due to crushing. Four blast tests were performed: for each blast, KPIs were recorded regarding the blast design, the particle size distribution, the real power energy consumption at the primary crushing unit and its rate of utilization. The results show that energy consumption at the primary crusher is a sum of two components: energy directly involved in crushing the rock, and additional energy used for winning the inertial resistances of the moving parts of the crusher.

Blasting is an integral part of the excavation process in underground construction and civil engineering. Due to the high energy content of explosives it is an inexpensive and highly effective method for rock. As explosives have continually been developing due to a high level of research, they have. However, it would be careless to ignore the negative side-effects of. Due to urbanization, blasting operations are executed more often in populous.

New trends in development of mining equipment emphasizing drilling efficiency and especial- ly accuracy in both dri fti ng and product i on. (long hole drilling).

Field Prospecting.

Features and Benefits

Но заставь противника думать так, как выгодно тебе, и у тебя вместо врага появится союзник. - Сьюзан, - услышал он собственный голос, - Стратмор - убийца. Ты в опасности. Казалось, она его не слышала. Хейл понимал, что говорит полную ерунду, потому что Стратмор никогда не причинит ей вреда, и она это отлично знает.

У нас много денег - какая разница, кто из нас их получает. Но это была чужая епархия. В конце концов ей пришлось смириться. Когда они в ту ночь отправились спать, она старалась радоваться с ним вместе, но что-то в глубине души говорило ей: все это кончится плохо. Она оказалась права, но никогда не подозревала насколько. - Вы заплатили ему десять тысяч долларов? - Она повысила голос.  - Это грязный трюк.

Поверь. Поэтому я и узнал о его намерении модифицировать Цифровую крепость. Я читал все его мозговые штурмы. Мозговые штурмы.

Система Сквозь строй должна служить его верным часовым, а Стратмору вздумалось ее обойти. Чатрукьян слышал гулкие удары своего сердца. ТРАНСТЕКСТ заклинило на восемнадцать часовМысль о компьютерном вирусе, проникшем в ТРАНСТЕКСТ и теперь свободно разгуливающем по подвалам АНБ, была непереносима. - Я обязан об этом доложить, - сказал он вслух. В подобной ситуации надо известить только одного человека - старшего администратора систем безопасности АНБ, одышливого, весящего четыреста фунтов компьютерного гуру, придумавшего систему фильтров Сквозь строй.

Drilling And Blasting Of Rocks Pdf

 Слишком поздно, - сказал Стратмор. Он глубоко вздохнул.  - Сегодня утром Энсея Танкадо нашли мертвым в городе Севилья, в Испании. ГЛАВА 8 Двухмоторный Лирджет-60 коснулся раскаленной посадочной полосы. Голый ландшафт испанской нижней Эстремадуры бежал за окном, слившись в неразличимый фон, затем замедлил свой бег.

Через неделю Сьюзан и еще шестерых пригласили. Сьюзан заколебалась, но все же поехала. По приезде группу сразу же разделили. Все они подверглись проверке на полиграф-машине, иными словами - на детекторе лжи: были тщательно проверены их родственники, изучены особенности почерка, и с каждым провели множество собеседований на всевозможные темы, включая сексуальную ориентацию и соответствующие предпочтения. Когда интервьюер спросил у Сьюзан, не занималась ли она сексом с животными, она с трудом удержалась, чтобы не выбежать из кабинета, но, так или иначе, верх взяли любопытство, перспектива работы на самом острие теории кодирования, возможность попасть во Дворец головоломок и стать членом наиболее секретного клуба в мире - Агентства национальной безопасности.

 - Немедленно. Фонтейн поднял голову и произнес с ледяным спокойствием: - Вот мое решение.

 Совершенно верно. Танкадо размахивает морковкой. - Вы видели этот алгоритм.

В обязанности Мидж как эксперта по обеспечению внутренней безопасности входило наблюдение за всем, что творилось в стенах АНБ… в том числе и в кладовке столовой агентства. Бринкерхофф поднялся со своего места, словно стоя ему было легче защищаться, но Мидж уже выходила из его кабинета. - Руки на стол, - бросила она через плечо.  - Когда я уйду, пожалуйста, никаких глупостей.

Drilling And Blasting Of Rocks Pdf

 Но… но это невозможно! - У немца перехватило дыхание.

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  1. Bevimellay

    Blasting , process of reducing a solid body, such as rock, to fragments by using an explosive.

    03.05.2021 at 07:12 Reply
  2. Telford D.

    Rock that is too. ard to cut economically with a machine must be excava ed in the conventional manner: using drills and explosives. Tunneling machines are.

    06.05.2021 at 01:44 Reply

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