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- SCADA Tutorials
- What is a SCADA System : Architecture & Its Working
- SCADA Systems for Electrical Distribution
A large number of processes occur in large industrial establishments. Every process, you need to monitor is very complex because each machine gives the different output. The computer then processes this data and presents it promptly.
The SCADA system gathers the information like a leak on a pipeline occurred and transfers the information back to the system while giving the alerts that leakage has occurred and displays the information in a logical and organized fashion. This entire process is known as automation. SCADA stands for supervisory control and data acquisition. It is a type of software application program for process control.
SCADA systems are used to monitor and control the equipment in the industrial process which includes manufacturing, production, development, and fabrication. The infrastructural processes include gas and oil distribution, electrical power, water distribution. Public utilities include a bus traffic system, airport. The SCADA system takes the reading of the meters and checks the status of sensors in regular intervals so that it requires minimal interference of humans.
Earlier, the controlling of industrial plants and manufacturing floors can be done manually with the help of analog equipment and push-buttons. So, a fully automated with a more efficient system was necessary for all the industries. We know that, for industrial control purposes, computers were implemented in the year After that, the concept of telemetry was implemented for data transmission as well as virtual communication.
So these concepts were fully helped while developing automation that is operated in industries remotely. It is a pure software package that is positioned on top of the hardware. A supervisory system gathers data on the process and sends the commands control to the process. The RTUs consists of the programmable logic converter which can be set to specific requirement.
For example, in the thermal power plant, the water flow can be set to a specific value or it can be changed according to the requirement. The SCADA system allows operators to change the set point for the flow, and enable alarm conditions in case of loss of flow and high temperature, and the condition is displayed and recorded.
The data server layer handles most of the process of data activities. The PLCs are connected to the data servers either directly or via networks or buses. The RTUs convert the sensor signals to digital data and sends digital data to the master. According to the master feedback received by the RTU, it applies the electrical signal to relays.
Most of the servers are used for multitasking and real-time database. The servers are responsible for data gathering and handling. The SCADA system consists of a software program to provide trending, diagnostic data, and manage information such as scheduled maintenance procedures, logistic information, detailed schematics for a particular sensor or machine, and expert-system troubleshooting guides. This means the operator can see a schematic representation of the plant being controlled. Examples are alarm checking, calculations, logging, and archiving; polling controllers on a set of parameters, those are typically connected to the server.
These functions are performed by sensors, RTUs, controllers, a communication network. The sensors are used to collect the important information and RTUs are used to send this information to the controller and display the status of the system. According to the status of the system, the user can give the command to other system components. This operation is done by the communication network. The real-time system consists of thousands of components and sensors. It is very important to know the status of particular components and sensors.
For example, some sensors measure the water flow from the reservoir to the water tank and some sensors measure the value pressure as the water is released from the reservoir. Real-time applications use a lot of sensors and components which should be controlled remotely. All information is transmitted through the internet using specific protocols. Sensors and relays are not able to communicate with the network protocols so RTUs used to communicate sensors and network interfaces.
The normal circuit networks have some indicators which can be visible to control but in the real-time SCADA system, there are thousands of sensors and alarm which are impossible to be handled simultaneously. The SCADA system uses different switches to operate each device and displays the status of the control area. SCADA system is implemented to work automatically without human intervention but in critical situations, it is handled by manpower.
The supervisory system works like a communication server among the human-machine interface software within the control room of workstations as well as its apparatus such as RTUs, Sensors, PLCs, etc. Smaller SCADA systems include simply a single personal computer to serve like a master system otherwise supervisory whereas, large SCADA systems include numerous servers, sites for tragedy recovery as well as distributed software applications.
The servers are connected like hot-standby formation otherwise dual-redundant to monitor server failure continuously. The RTU or remote terminal unit is an electronic device and it is also known as remote telemetry units.
This system comprises physical objects that are interfaced through RTUs. The controlling of these devices can be done through microprocessors. Here, microprocessors are utilized for controlling RTUs which are used to transmit the recorded data toward the supervisory system.
The data can be received from the master system for controlling the connected objects. These controllers are connected to the sensors for converting the output signal of the sensor into digital data. Few standardized 7 recognized protocols are used between the compact SCADA protocols to deliver information simply once the RTUs are polled through the supervisory station. In HMI otherwise master station, SCADA programming is mainly used to make maps, diagrams to provide very important information throughout progression otherwise when event failure occurs.
Most of the commercial SCADA systems utilize consistent interfaces in C programming language otherwise derived programming language can also be used. The information is displayed and monitored to be processed by a human. The HMI provides the graphical presentation of the system.
For example, it provides a graphical picture of the pump connected to the tank. The user can see the flow of the water and the pressure of the water. The important part of the HMI is an alarm system that is activated according to the predefined values. In these types of systems, minicomputers are used. The development of these systems can be done when common network services are not available. The designing of these systems can be done like independent systems without any relation to other systems.
The data can be gathered from all RTUs using a backup mainframe. The distribution of the control functions can be done across numerous systems by connecting with a local area network. In these types of systems, the size and cost of each station are reduced however there were no consistent network protocols.
The data transmission among two nodes can be done with the help of Ethernet or Fiber-optic connections. Maintaining as well as integrating these systems is easy as compared with others. In real-time, the condition of these systems can be reported through cloud computing. Therefore the implementation of algorithms like intricate control can be done that are frequently used on usual PLCs. SCADA networks used by some of the systems are electricity , natural gas, etc. The private and government organizations have taken the measures of these networks because of the valuable role to make sure the security of the SCADA systems.
The SCADA system can be protected by mapping all present systems, monitoring, and detecting the institute, and create processes for the security of the network.
In large industrial establishments, many processes occur simultaneously and each needs to be monitored, which is a complex task. The SCADA systems are used to monitor and control the equipment in the industrial processes which include water distribution, oil distribution, and power distribution. The main aim of this project is to process the real-time data and control the large scale remote industrial environment.
In the real-time scenario, a temperature logging system for a remote plant operation is taken. The temperature sensors are connected to the microcontroller, which is connected to the PC at the front end, and software is loaded on the computer.
The data is collected from the temperature sensors. The temperature sensors continuously send the signal to the microcontroller which accordingly displays these values on its front panel. One can set the parameters like low limit and high limit on the computer screen. When the temperature of a sensor goes above-set point the microcontroller sends a command to the corresponding relay. This is a temperature logging system. Here 8 temperature sensors in multiplexing mode are connected to the microcontroller through ADC Then the values of all the sensors are sent serially by the microcontroller through Max 32 to the com port of the PC.
One can set by the interactive way some parameters like a set point, low limit, and high limit on the computer screen. When the temperature of some sensor increases beyond the setpoint, the microcontroller sends commands to relay driver IC. The heaters connected through relay contacts are specific for that sensor turned OFF or ON in opposite case. High limit and low limits are for alarm.
When the temperature goes above the high limit or below the low limit the alarm will be turned on. This system is controlled by a computer, used to control as well as monitor different processes in plants. Here is a question for you, what is PLC?
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition mechanism plays an important role in determining the processes and control system. It further sends processed information to supervising unit for analytics.
Share This Post: Facebook. PLCs are mainly used to control the process of complex industries like motors and running machines.
What is a SCADA System : Architecture & Its Working
Table of Contents. Nowadays, computer control is one of the most cost effective solutions for improving reliability, optimum operation, intelligent control and protection of a power system network. Having advanced data collection capabilities, SCADA system plays a significant role in power system operation. Typically, at distribution side SCADA does more than simply collecting data by automating entire distribution network and facilitating remote monitoring, coordinate, control and operating distribution components just like in Smart Grid System. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition or simply SCADA is one of the solutions available for data acquisition, monitor and control systems covering large geographical areas. It refers to the combination of data acquisition and telemetry. SCADA systems are mainly used for the implementation of monitoring and control system of an equipment or a plant in several industries like power plants, oil and gas refining, water and waste control, telecommunications, etc.
If your company uses SCADA supervisory control and data acquisition software, a time will come when your system becomes outdated and you discover that updating to the newest version of your software can come with a high price tag. However you could get more bang for your buck if you buy new SCADA software that offers more features and benefits than you currently get with your existing software. So the question is, which is the better investment? But the cost of updating can be very high — especially for large-scale SCADA systems — and the updated system may not even come with improved functionality. On the other hand you could gain new functionality by converting to a new SCADA software solution, but there are costs to consider in this option as well, such as licensing, conversion, installation, and training. If you find yourself in this situation, calculating the cost of staying with your current traditional SCADA software should be easy to figure out because you are already very familiar with it. However, assessing the cost of converting to a new solution is harder because advances of modern SCADA software in the last few years have changed the equation.
SCADA Systems for Electrical Distribution
A large number of processes occur in large industrial establishments. Every process, you need to monitor is very complex because each machine gives the different output. The computer then processes this data and presents it promptly. The SCADA system gathers the information like a leak on a pipeline occurred and transfers the information back to the system while giving the alerts that leakage has occurred and displays the information in a logical and organized fashion. This entire process is known as automation.
Skip to Main Content. A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest technical professional organization dedicated to advancing technology for the benefit of humanity. Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions. All of the various communication media are addressed with a brief description along with tables of the advantages and disadvantages of each and recommendations for choosing the most appropriate communication technology. Article :.
SCADA is not a specific technology or protocol but refers to any application where data is collected from a system in order to control that system. SCADA systems performs for functions 1. DATA acquisition 2. DATA communication 3. DATA presentation 4.
Кто он. - Понятия не имею. - Похож на китайца. Японец, подумал Беккер. - Бедняга.
ТРАНСТЕКСТ вскрыл защитную оболочку и выпустил вирус на волю. - Линейная мутация, - простонал коммандер. - Танкадо утверждал, что это составная часть кода. - И он безжизненно откинулся на спинку стула.
У нее оставалось целых пять часов до рейса, и она сказала, что попытается отмыть руку.