anatomy and physiology of breast pdf

Anatomy And Physiology Of Breast Pdf

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Lactation is the process by which milk is synthesized and secreted from the mammary glands of the postpartum female breast in response to an infant sucking at the nipple.

The breasts are paired structures located on the anterior thoracic wall, in the pectoral region. They are present in both males and females, yet are more prominent in females following puberty.

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Mammary gland

Breasts are made up of fat and breast tissue, along with nerves, veins, arteries and connective tissue that helps hold everything in place. The main chest muscle the pectoralis muscle is found between the breast and the ribs in the chest wall. Image source: National Cancer Institute www. Breast tissue is a complex network of lobules small round sacs that produce milk and ducts canals that carry milk from the lobules to the nipple openings during breastfeeding in a pattern that looks like bunches of grapes.

During puberty, hormones produced by the ovaries and pituitary gland a part of the brain that controls growth and other glands in the body cause the breasts to grow. This causes the milk ducts to stretch out and become more branched. Adult women have lobes in each breast [ 1 ]. Each lobe has lobules [ 2 ]. Small milk ducts are attached to the lobules. There are about 10 duct systems in each breast, each with its own opening at the nipple [ 2 ].

During pregnancy, the lobules grow and begin to produce milk. The milk is then released into the ducts so a mother can breastfeed her baby. Muscle tissue in the nipples allows them to become erect in response to stimulation or breastfeeding. Glands on the areola the shaded circle of skin around the nipple release small amounts of fluid during breastfeeding to lubricate the nipple.

After menopause when the ovaries stop producing hormones and a woman stops having periods , the number of lobules decreases and those that remain shrink in size. Learn more about breast density and mammography. Learn about breast density and breast cancer risk. Boys and girls begin life with similar breast tissue. Facts for Life: Breast Density. Breast Cancer Structure of the Breast. Share Your Story or Read Others. Breast Anatomy The structure of the breast Breasts are made up of fat and breast tissue, along with nerves, veins, arteries and connective tissue that helps hold everything in place.

Figure 1. Breast tissue may also be called glandular tissue. The female breast Changes during childhood and the teen years Throughout childhood, girls have a small patch of immature breast tissue. The breast tissue then develops into a mature system of lobules and ducts. The adult breast Adult women have lobes in each breast [ 1 ]. Though the breast is mature after puberty, the breast tissue remains inactive until pregnancy.

Pregnancy and breastfeeding During pregnancy, the lobules grow and begin to produce milk. Muscle tissue around the lobules helps squeeze milk into the ducts. Changes after menopause After menopause when the ovaries stop producing hormones and a woman stops having periods , the number of lobules decreases and those that remain shrink in size.

As breast tissue decreases during menopause, breast density also decreases. Before menopause, the breasts have more breast tissue than fat higher breast density.

After menopause, the breasts typically have more fat than breast tissue lower breast density. The male breast Boys and girls begin life with similar breast tissue. At puberty, high testosterone levels and low estrogen levels stop breast development in men. Men have some milk ducts, but they remain undeveloped. Lobules are most often absent. In Your Own Words How has having breast cancer changed your outlook?

The Who, What, Where, When and Sometimes, Why.

The breast is an organ whose structure reflects its special function: the production of milk for lactation breast feeding. The epithelial component of the tissue consists of lobules , where milk is made, which connect to ducts that lead out to the nipple. Most cancers of the breast arise from the cells which form the lobules and terminal ducts. These lobules and ducts are spread throughout the background fibrous tissue and adipose tissue fat that make up the majority of the breast. The male breast structure is nearly identical to the female breast, except that the male breast tissue lacks the specialized lobules, since there is no physiologic need for milk production by males.

The Breasts

Breasts are made up of fat and breast tissue, along with nerves, veins, arteries and connective tissue that helps hold everything in place. The main chest muscle the pectoralis muscle is found between the breast and the ribs in the chest wall. Image source: National Cancer Institute www. Breast tissue is a complex network of lobules small round sacs that produce milk and ducts canals that carry milk from the lobules to the nipple openings during breastfeeding in a pattern that looks like bunches of grapes.

Management of Breast Diseases pp Cite as. This chapter is a review of the development, structure and function of the normal human breast. It is meant to serve as a backdrop and reference for the chapters that follow on pathologies and treatment.

Overview of the Breast

If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. The mammary gland is a distinguishing feature of mammals and its primary role is to produce milk to nourish offspring Figures 1. In humans, the breast has a multitude of further roles including being a major female sexual characteristic and a key part of female body image. Breast anatomy.

Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Published on Aug 11,

Anatomy and Physiology of the Breast

A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in humans and other mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring. Mammals get their name from the Latin word mamma , "breast". The mammary glands are arranged in organs such as the breasts in primates for example, humans and chimpanzees , the udder in ruminants for example, cows, goats, and deer , and the dugs of other animals for example, dogs and cats. Lactorrhea , the occasional production of milk by the glands, can occur in any mammal, but in most mammals, lactation , the production of enough milk for nursing , occurs only in phenotypic females who have gestated in recent months or years.

Он глубоко вздохнул.  - Сегодня утром Энсея Танкадо нашли мертвым в городе Севилья, в Испании. ГЛАВА 8 Двухмоторный Лирджет-60 коснулся раскаленной посадочной полосы. Голый ландшафт испанской нижней Эстремадуры бежал за окном, слившись в неразличимый фон, затем замедлил свой бег.

Вдруг Халохоту показалось, что тень Беккера как бы споткнулась. Она совершила судорожный рывок влево и вроде бы закружилась в воздухе, а затем снова прильнула к центру лестницы. Халохот сделал стремительный прыжок. Вот .

Сирены захлебнулись, мониторы Третьего узла погасли. Тело Грега Хейла растворилось в темноте, и Сьюзан, инстинктивно поджав ноги, прикрылась пиджаком Стратмора. В шифровалке никогда еще не было так тихо, здесь всегда слышался гул генераторов. Теперь все умолкло, так что можно было различить облегченный вздох раненого чудовища - ТРАНСТЕКСТА, постепенно стихающее шипение и посвистывание, сопутствующие медленному охлаждению. Сьюзан закрыла глаза и начала молиться за Дэвида.

Сьюзан открыла один из каналов.

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