File Name: human evolution processes and adaptations .zip
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The origin of our species has long been a compelling focus of human curiosity, and the record of past climate change and its impacts on hominin evolution provide an ideal context for considering potential intersections between future climate change and the responses of our species to such environmental changes.
- Human Evolution Processes Adaptations by Steven Gaulin
- Human evolution
- Culture and the evolution of human cooperation
- Human Evolution Processes Adaptations by Steven Gaulin
The Zoo educator will guide students through the Zoo to explore adaptations of animals to their environments. Students will work through examples of different evolutionary processes that have led to the diversity of life on Earth. Working with model skulls and stone tools, students will try to piece together the human evolution process. Our email newsletter keeps you up to date with what's happening at the Zoo.
Human Evolution Processes Adaptations by Steven Gaulin
Human evolution , the process by which human beings developed on Earth from now-extinct primates. Viewed zoologically, we humans are Homo sapiens , a culture-bearing upright-walking species that lives on the ground and very likely first evolved in Africa about , years ago. We are now the only living members of what many zoologists refer to as the human tribe, Hominini , but there is abundant fossil evidence to indicate that we were preceded for millions of years by other hominins, such as Ardipithecus , Australopithecus , and other species of Homo , and that our species also lived for a time contemporaneously with at least one other member of our genus , H.
In addition, we and our predecessors have always shared Earth with other apelike primates, from the modern-day gorilla to the long-extinct Dryopithecus. That we and the extinct hominins are somehow related and that we and the apes , both living and extinct , are also somehow related is accepted by anthropologists and biologists everywhere.
Yet the exact nature of our evolutionary relationships has been the subject of debate and investigation since the great British naturalist Charles Darwin published his monumental books On the Origin of Species and The Descent of Man There is theoretically, however, a common ancestor that existed millions of years ago.
This ancient primate has not been identified and may never be known with certainty, because fossil relationships are unclear even within the human lineage, which is more recent. The answer to this question is challenging, since paleontologists have only partial information on what happened when. Strong evidence supports the branching of the human lineage from the one that produced great apes orangutans, chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas in Africa sometime between 6 and 7 million years ago. Evidence of toolmaking dates to about 3.
However, the age of the oldest remains of the genus Homo is younger than this technological milestone, dating to some 2.
The oldest known remains of Homo sapiens —a collection of skull fragments, a complete jawbone, and stone tools—date to about , years ago. Humans are one type of several living species of great apes. Humans evolved alongside orangutans, chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas. All of these share a common ancestor before about 7 million years ago. Neanderthals Homo neanderthalensis were archaic humans who emerged at least , years ago and died out perhaps between 35, and 24, years ago.
They manufactured and used tools including blades, awls, and sharpening instruments , developed a spoken language , and developed a rich culture that involved hearth construction, traditional medicine , and the burial of their dead. Neanderthals also created art ; evidence shows that some painted with naturally occurring pigments.
In the end, Neanderthals were likely replaced by modern humans H. The primary resource for detailing the path of human evolution will always be fossil specimens.
Certainly, the trove of fossils from Africa and Eurasia indicates that, unlike today, more than one species of our family has lived at the same time for most of human history. The nature of specific fossil specimens and species can be accurately described, as can the location where they were found and the period of time when they lived; but questions of how species lived and why they might have either died out or evolved into other species can only be addressed by formulating scenarios, albeit scientifically informed ones.
These scenarios are based on contextual information gleaned from localities where the fossils were collected. In devising such scenarios and filling in the human family bush, researchers must consult a large and diverse array of fossils, and they must also employ refined excavation methods and records, geochemical dating techniques, and data from other specialized fields such as genetics , ecology and paleoecology, and ethology animal behaviour —in short, all the tools of the multidisciplinary science of paleoanthropology.
This article is a discussion of the broad career of the human tribe from its probable beginnings millions of years ago in the Miocene Epoch 23 million to 5. Particular attention is paid to the fossil evidence for this history and to the principal models of evolution that have gained the most credence in the scientific community.
See the article evolution for a full explanation of evolutionary theory, including its main proponents both before and after Darwin, its arousal of both resistance and acceptance in society, and the scientific tools used to investigate the theory and prove its validity. Human evolution Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.
Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Australian Museum - Human Evolution. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Russell Howard Tuttle Russell H. He conducted pioneering functional morphological An artist's depiction of five species of the human lineage. Top Questions.
Homo sapiens. Possible pathways in the evolution of the human lineage. Load Next Page.
However, evolution, including human evolution, is a process of transitions from one state to another, and so questions are best put in terms of understanding the nature of those transitions. Four questions are addressed: 1 Is there a major divide between early australopithecine and later Homo evolution? The importance of developing technologies and approaches and the enduring role of fieldwork are emphasized. The history of science is awash with books and papers in search of human origins, or the origins of the things that made us human—upright walking or language or culture. Seeking origins is looking for the beginnings of something, finding out why and when something that did not exist before did so afterwards.
PDF | On Jan 1, , Christopher Brian Stringer published Human Evolution and Biological Adaptation in the Pleistocene | Find, read and cite all the research.
Culture and the evolution of human cooperation
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Human Evolution Processes Adaptations by Steven Gaulin
This article explores the hypothesis that key human adaptations evolved in response to environmental instability. This idea was developed during research conducted by Dr. Paleoanthropologists — scientists who study human evolution — have proposed a variety of ideas about how environmental conditions may have stimulated important developments in human origins. Diverse species have emerged over the course of human evolution, and a suite of adaptations have accumulated over time, including upright walking, the capacity to make tools, enlargement of the brain, prolonged maturation, the emergence of complex mental and social behavior, and dependence on technology to alter the surroundings. The period of human evolution has coincided with environmental change, including cooling, drying, and wider climate fluctuations over time. How did environmental change shape the evolution of new adaptations, the origin and extinction of early hominin species, and the emergence of our species, Homo sapiens?
Human evolution is the lengthy process of change by which people originated from apelike ancestors. Scientific evidence shows that the physical and behavioral traits shared by all people originated from apelike ancestors and evolved over a period of approximately six million years. One of the earliest defining human traits, bipedalism -- the ability to walk on two legs -- evolved over 4 million years ago. Other important human characteristics -- such as a large and complex brain, the ability to make and use tools, and the capacity for language -- developed more recently. Many advanced traits -- including complex symbolic expression, art, and elaborate cultural diversity -- emerged mainly during the past , years. Humans are primates.
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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations. Different characteristics tend to exist within any given population as a result of mutation , genetic recombination and other sources of genetic variation. The scientific theory of evolution by natural selection was conceived independently by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace in the midth century and was set out in detail in Darwin's book On the Origin of Species. This is followed by three observable facts about living organisms: 1 traits vary among individuals with respect to their morphology, physiology and behaviour phenotypic variation , 2 different traits confer different rates of survival and reproduction differential fitness and 3 traits can be passed from generation to generation heritability of fitness. In the early 20th century, other competing ideas of evolution such as mutationism and orthogenesis were refuted as the modern synthesis reconciled Darwinian evolution with classical genetics , which established adaptive evolution as being caused by natural selection acting on Mendelian genetic variation. All life on Earth shares a last universal common ancestor LUCA    that lived approximately 3.
У него закружилась голова. Увидев выгравированные знаки, Беккер страшно удивился. Он совсем забыл про кольцо на пальце, забыл, для чего приехал в Севилью. Он посмотрел на приближающуюся фигуру, затем перевел взгляд на кольцо. Из-за чего погибла Меган. Неужели ему предстояло погибнуть по той же причине.
Поглощение огромных объемов информации сродни беспорядочным половым связям: какие меры предосторожности ни принимай, рано или поздно подхватишь какую-нибудь гадость. Чатрукьян просмотрел список и изумился еще. Все файлы прошли проверку, в них не было обнаружено ничего необычного, а это означало, что ТРАНСТЕКСТ безукоризненно чист.
Но с ключа могут снять копию. - Каждый, кто к нему прикоснется, будет уничтожен. Повисла тишина. Наконец Нуматака спросил: - Где ключ. - Вам нужно знать только одно: он будет найден.
Он не мог понять, почему Мидж всегда права. Он не заметил отражения, мелькнувшего за оконным стеклом рядом с. Крупная фигура возникла в дверях директорского кабинета.
Чед? - услышал он голос у себя за спиной. Обернувшись, Бринкерхофф начал всматриваться в темноту. Мидж как ни чем не бывало стояла в приемной возле двойной двери директорского кабинета и протягивала к нему руку ладонью вверх. - Ключ, Чед. Бринкерхофф покраснел до корней волос и повернулся к мониторам.
Нет, конечно. Я просто подумал… - Толстяк быстро убрал бумажник. - Я… я… - Совсем растерявшись, он сел на край постели и сжал руки.
Он. Он должен быть. Дворик под названием Апельсиновый сад прославился благодаря двум десяткам апельсиновых деревьев, которые приобрели в городе известность как место рождения английского мармелада. В XVI11 веке некий английский купец приобрел у севильской церкви три десятка бушелей апельсинов и, привезя их в Лондон, обнаружил, что фрукты горькие и несъедобные. Он попытался сделать из апельсиновой кожуры джем, но чтобы можно было взять его в рот, в него пришлось добавить огромное количество сахара.
Боль в боку немного утихла, да и глаза как будто обрели прежнюю зоркость. Он немного постоял, наслаждаясь ярким солнцем и тонким ароматом цветущих апельсиновых деревьев, а потом медленно зашагал к выходу на площадь. В этот момент рядом резко притормозил мини-автобус. Из него выпрыгнули двое мужчин, оба молодые, в военной форме. Они приближались к Беккеру с неумолимостью хорошо отлаженных механизмов.