Compare And Contrast Qualitative And Quantitative Research Paradigms Pdf
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Once you get started with human behavior research you soon find yourself running into the question of whether your research project is qualitative or quantitative in nature. There are inherent differences between qualitative and quantitative research methods, although their objectives and applications overlap in many ways. Qualitative research is considered to be particularly suitable for exploratory research e.
- Qualitative vs. quantitative research
- Qualitative vs. quantitative research
- Difference Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research
The difference between qualitative and quantitative approaches to research is often said to be grounded in two distinct paradigms, each with its own, mutually contradictory, philosophical presuppositions.
Qualitative vs. quantitative research
Once you get started with human behavior research you soon find yourself running into the question of whether your research project is qualitative or quantitative in nature.
There are inherent differences between qualitative and quantitative research methods, although their objectives and applications overlap in many ways.
Qualitative research is considered to be particularly suitable for exploratory research e. It is primarily used to discover and gain an in-depth understanding of individual experiences, thoughts, opinions, and trends, and to dig deeper into the problem at hand.
The data collection toolkit of a qualitative researcher is quite versatile, ranging from completely unstructured to semi-structured techniques. Typically, qualitative research focuses on individual cases and their subjective impressions. This requires an iterative study design — data collection and research questions are adjusted according to what is learned.
Often, qualitative projects are done with few respondents and are supposed to provide insights into the setting of a problem, serving as a source of inspiration to generate hypotheses for subsequent quantitative projects.
Top of Page. Simply put, quantitative research is all about numbers and figures. It is used to quantify opinions, attitudes, behaviors, and other defined variables with the goal to support or refute hypotheses about a specific phenomenon, and potentially contextualize the results from the study sample in a wider population or specific groups. As quantitative research explicitly specifies what is measured and how it is measured in order to uncover patterns in — for example — behavior, motivation, emotion, and cognition, quantitative data collection is considered to be much more structured than qualitative methods.
Quantitative techniques typically comprise various forms of questionnaires and surveys , structured interviews as well as a behavioral observation based on explicit coding and categorization schemes. All of these quantify the behavioral processes in such a way that numerical results can be obtained — for example, fixation duration from eye tracking representing the amount of visual attention , the number of GSR peaks indicating the amount of physiological arousal or the power of a specific EEG band.
After data collection, quantitative analysis techniques and statistics can be applied, such as t-tests and ANOVAs, to non-parametric methods. This often necessitates much bigger sample sizes compared to qualitative research but allows you to make more solid conclusions, that are backed up with data. Ultimately, whether to pursue a qualitative or a quantitative study approach is up to you — however, be sure to base your decision on the nature of your project and the kind of information you seek in the context of your study and the resources available to you.
Qualitative will offer you an in-depth understanding of your research problem and hopefully help answer your hypothesis. Quantitative will allow you to scale your research to provide larger sets of data for reliability and validity.
A combination of the two provides you with objectivity. Objectivity is the most general requirement and reflects the fact that measures should come to the same result no matter who is using them. Also, they should generate the same outcomes independent of the outside influences. For example, a multiple-choice personality questionnaire or survey is objective if it returns the same score irrelevant of whether the participant responds verbally or in written form.
Further, the result should be independent of the knowledge or attitude of the experimenter, so that the results are purely driven by the performance of the respondent. A measure is said to have a high reliability if it returns the same value under consistent conditions. There are several sub-categories of reliability. This is the final and most crucial criterion.
It reflects the extent to which a measure collects what it is supposed to collect. Imagine an experiment where body size is collected to measure its relationship with happiness. Obviously, the measure is both objective and reliable body size measures are quite consistent irrespective of the person taking the measurement but it is truly a poor measure with respect to its construct validity i.
If you would like to learn more about qualitative and quantitative research designs, contact our experts at iMotions. Bryn Farnsworth, Ph. D PostDoc. What is qualitative research and why is it important Qualitative research is considered to be particularly suitable for exploratory research e. Focus Groups vs. Top of Page What is quantitative research and how to measure it Simply put, quantitative research is all about numbers and figures.
Check out: How To Do Behavioral Coding in iMotions Quantitative research techniques Quantitative techniques typically comprise various forms of questionnaires and surveys , structured interviews as well as a behavioral observation based on explicit coding and categorization schemes. And How Does It Work?
Check out infographics: The Study of Human Behavior: Measuring, analyzing and understanding After data collection, quantitative analysis techniques and statistics can be applied, such as t-tests and ANOVAs, to non-parametric methods. Top of Page Qualitative or quantitative research study design?
Measurements to avoid bias This is generally described with respect to the following criteria: Objectivity Objectivity is the most general requirement and reflects the fact that measures should come to the same result no matter who is using them. Reliability A measure is said to have a high reliability if it returns the same value under consistent conditions. Validity This is the final and most crucial criterion.
What is Selection Bias? And How to Defeat it. Read more about the iMotions Platform Platform. How to properly sanitize your data collection site between participants.
Qualitative vs. quantitative research
Published on April 12, by Raimo Streefkerk. Revised on February 15, When collecting and analyzing data, quantitative research deals with numbers and statistics, while qualitative researc h deals with words and meanings. Both are important for gaining different kinds of knowledge. Qualitative research Qualitative research is expressed in words. It is used to understand concepts, thoughts or experiences.
Qualitative Methods. Quantitative Methods. Methods include focus groups, in-depth interviews, and reviews of documents for types of themes. Primarily inductive process used to formulate theory or hypotheses. Primarily deductive process used to test pre-specified concepts, constructs, and hypotheses that make up a theory. More subjective: describes a problem or condition from the point of view of those experiencing it. More objective: provides observed effects interpreted by researchers of a program on a problem or condition.
Difference Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research
Research is an important part of operating a business. Whether the research is for marketing purposes or to determine future possible growth, research helps a business plan its course. Two types of research are the most popular forms a business uses. Qualitative research seeks to understand why people react and how they feel about a specific situation.
The design of a research study begins with the selection of a topic and a paradigm. A paradigm is essentially a worldview, a whole framework of beliefs, values and methods within which research takes place. It is this world view within which researchers work. According to Cresswell "A qualitative study is defined as an inquiry process of understanding a social or human problem, based on building a complex, holistic picture, formed with words, reporting detailed views of informants, and conducted in a natural setting.
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