epidemiology pathogenesis and prevention of head and neck cancer pdf

Epidemiology Pathogenesis And Prevention Of Head And Neck Cancer Pdf

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Epidemiological Trends in Head and Neck Cancer and Aids in Diagnosis

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Most head and neck cancers are derived from the mucosal epithelium in the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx and are known collectively as head and neck squamous cell carcinoma HNSCC. Oral cavity and larynx cancers are generally associated with tobacco consumption, alcohol abuse or both, whereas pharynx cancers are increasingly attributed to infection with human papillomavirus HPV , primarily HPV Despite evidence of histological progression from cellular atypia through various degrees of dysplasia, ultimately leading to invasive HNSCC, most patients are diagnosed with late-stage HNSCC without a clinically evident antecedent pre-malignant lesion.

Chemoprevention of HNSCC is a means of cancer control with a use of drugs or natural agents in order to hinder or delay the cancer development. In case of HNSCC there is currently no agent, which would give positive result in the third phase of clinical trials. Promising results of preclinical trials are not always confirmed by further tests. Main problems are low effectiveness, high toxicity, and lack of highly specificity biomarkers for monitoring the research. New trials concerning many agents, as well as novel technologies for provision of pharmaceutical forms of them, including drug nanocarriers, are currently underway, which gives hope for finding the perfect chemopreventive agent formula.

Selected lifestyle characteristics of incident cases of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma HNSCC and matched controls. JAMA Oncol. The main risk factors for HNC are increasing age, male sex, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption. Two meta-analyses of case-control studies 8 , 16 showed strong associations of HPV detection at the time of diagnosis with tonsillar cancer odds ratios [OR], Follow-up questionnaires were sent every 2 years to CPS-II-NC participants and annually to PLCO cohort members to update information on lifestyle exposures and health status, and to ascertain newly diagnosed cancers.

Knowledge Center

Head and neck cancers HNCs are specifically defined as cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, which includes the oral cavity, the mucosal lip, the oropharynx, the hypopharynx, the nasopharynx, the larynx, and the salivary glands. Alcohol consumption. Heavier consumption of alcohol is associated with increased HNC risk. There is also a possibility of genetic susceptibility to HNC among certain heavy drinkers of alcohol that may predispose them to such cancers. HPV infection. Individuals with HPV-positive HNCs tend to be younger, healthier fewer comorbid diseases than in long-term tobacco and alcohol users , and have different behavior- related risk factors, including more sexual partners and earlier ages of onset of sexual activity. Currently there are more than viral types of HPV.

BBSB, Rm. Head and neck cancers represent the sixth most common cancer worldwide with approximately , new patients diagnosed annually resulting in more than , deaths every year 1. In high-risk countries i. In the United States U. By contrast, there is a recent upsurge in the incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma OPSCC which is attributed to a change in the biologic driver of SCC in this region with an increasing frequency of an association with high-risk subtypes of human papilloma virus HPV 4 , 5.

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. The risk of developing certain cancers can be reduced by not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, limiting alcohol intake, eating plenty of vegetables , fruits , and whole grains , vaccination against certain infectious diseases, limiting consumption of processed meat and red meat , and limiting exposure to direct sunlight. In , about Greek physicians Hippocrates and Galen, among others, noted similarity of crabs to some tumors with swollen veins. The word was introduced in English in the modern medical sense around Cancers comprise a large family of diseases that involve abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

Chemoprevention of Head and Neck Cancers: Does It Have Only One Face?

Metrics details. Infection with human papillomavirus HPV is necessary for the development of cervical carcinoma. By contrast, the role of HPV in the pathogenesis of other malignancies, such as head and neck cancers, is less well characterised.

Oral complications of radiotherapy in the head and neck. Radiotherapy is a treatment modality largely used for head and neck malignancies. However, high doses of radiation in large areas, including the oral cavity, maxilla, mandible and salivary glands may result in several undesired reactions. AIM: The aim of this study is to briefly review the side effects that may be seen in the oral cavity during or after radiotherapy treatment in the head and neck region. Keywords: Radiotherapy.

Как бы там ни было, Стратмор знал, что Хейла можно будет всегда ликвидировать в случае необходимости. - Решайтесь, приятель! - с издевкой в голосе сказал Хейл.  - Мы уходим или нет? - Его руки клещами сжимали горло Сьюзан. Стратмор знал, что, если он сейчас достанет мобильник и позвонит в службу безопасности, Сьюзан будет жить. Он готов был спорить на что угодно, хоть на собственную жизнь, потому что ясно представлял себе весь сценарий.

 Хочу тебя обрадовать.

 - Мне нужно в туалет. Хейл ухмыльнулся, но, подождав еще минуту, отошел в сторону. - Извини, Сью, я пошутил. Сьюзан быстро проскочила мимо него и вышла из комнаты.

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