File Name: indian tales and legends .zip
Whether it is to preserve history or provide moral lessons, ancient folk tales have served a much bigger purpose that just entertaining people. Here are some famous and fascinating stories that have enlightened generations of Indians. Baital Pachisi is believed to be one of the oldest vampire stories from India.
- Indian Myth and Legend
- Indian Tales And Legends (Myths & Legends) By J. E. B. Gray
- Folklore of India
Gray - Indian Tales and Legends has 10 ratings and 0 reviews. Indian Tales and Legends is a book of contrasts: there are simple folk tales about cats, mice and. They have been around us all the time.
Indian Myth and Legend
The folklore of India encompasses the folklore of the nation of India and the Indian subcontinent. India is an ethnically and religiously diverse country. Given this diversity, it is difficult to generalize widely about the folklore of India as a unit. Although India is a Hindu-majority country, with more than three-fourths of the population identifying themselves as Hindus, there is no single, unified, and all-pervading concept of identity present in it.
Various heterogeneous traditions, numerous regional cultures and different religions to grow and flourish here. Folk religion in Hinduism may explain the rationale behind local religious practices, and contain local myths that explain the customs or rituals. However, folklore goes beyond religious or supernatural beliefs and practices, and encompasses the entire body of social tradition whose chief vehicle of transmission is oral or outside institutional channels.
The folk and tribal arts of India speak volumes about the country's rich heritage. Each school has its distinct style of colour combinations or figures and its features. Other popular folk art forms include Madhubani paintings from Bihar , Kangra painting from Himachal Pradesh and Warli paintings from Maharashtra. Tanjore paintings from South India incorporate real gold into their paintings. Local fairs, festivals, deities and heroes warriors play a vital role in this art form.
India possesses a large body of heroic ballads and epic poetry preserved in oral tradition, both in Sanskrit and the various vernacular languages of India. One such oral epic, telling the story of Pabuji , has been collected by Dr. John Smith from Rajasthan ; it is a long poem in the Rajasthani language , traditionally told by professional story tellers, known as Bhopas , who deliver it in front of a tapestry that depicts the characters of the story, and functions as a portable temple, accompanied by a ravanhattho fiddle.
The title character was a historical figure, a Rajput prince, who has been deified in Rajasthan. The Ramayana and the Mahabharata are the two greatest and most widely read epics of India. Other noteworthy collections of Indian traditional stories include the Panchatantra , a collection of traditional narratives made by Vishnu Sarma in the second century BC. The Hitopadesha of Narayana is a collection of anthropomorphic fabliaux , animal fables , in Sanskrit, compiled in the ninth century.
Indian folklorists during the last thirty years have substantially contributed to the study of folklore. But it is during the s that some folklorists studied in US universities and trained up themselves with the modern theories and methods of folklore research and set a new trend of folklore study in India.
Especially, South Indian universities advocated for folklore as a discipline in the universities and hundreds of scholars trained up on folklore. Ramanjuan was the noted folklorist to analyse folklore from Indian context. Study of folklore was strengthened by two stremas sicsic ; one is Finnish folklorist Lauri Honko and another is Peter J. Claus of American folklore. These two folklorists conducted their field work on Epic of Siri and led the Indian folklorists to the new folklore study.
The Central Institute of Indian Languages has played a major role in promoting folklore studies in India to explore another reality of Indian culture. Recently scholars such as Chitrasen Pasayat, M.
Pattanaik, B. Reddy, Sadhana Naithani, P. Subachary, Molly Kaushal, Shyam Sundar Mahapatra, Bhabagrahi Mishra and many new folklorists have contributed in their respective field for shaping folklore study as a strong discipline in representing the people's memory and people's voice. Recently the National Folklore Support Center in Chennai has taken the initiative to promote folklore in public domain and bridging the gap of academic domain and community domain.
Indian folk heroes like Rama, Krishna in Sanskrit epics and history and also in freedom movement are well known to every one. They have found a place in written literature.
But in Indian cultural sub-system, Indian folk heroes are most popular. The castes and tribes of India have maintained their diversities of culture through their language and religion and customs.
So in addition to national heroes, regional heroes and local folk and tribal heroes are alive in the collective memory of the people.
Let's take examples of the Santhals or the Gonds. Gonds have their folk hero Chital Singh Chhatti. Banjara folk hero is Lakha Banjara or Raja Isalu. But not only heroes, the heroines of Indian folklore have also significant contribution in shaping the culture of India. Banjara epics are heroine-centric. These epics reflect the "sati" cult. Oral epics with heroic actions of heroes and heroines produce a "counter text", as opposed to the written texts.
Therefore, the younger brother becomes hero and kill his elder brother in an oral epic, which is forbidden in classical epics. Folk heroes are some times deified and are worshipped in the village. There is a thin difference of a mythic hero and romantic hero in Indian folklore. In Kalahandi , oral epics are available among the ethnic singers, performed in ritual context and social context.
Dr Mahendra Mishra, a folklorist, has conducted research on oral epics in Kalahandi, taking seven ethnic groups. Chitrasen Pasayat has made an extensive study of different folk and tribal forms of Yatra, like Dhanu yatra, Kandhen-budhi yatra, Chuda-khai yatra, Sulia yatra, Patkhanda yatra, Budha-dangar yatra, Khandabasa yatra, Chhatar yatra, Sital-sasthi yatra and examined the 'hero characters' of the local deities.
Indian oral epics are found abundantly everywhere there are caste based culture. Lauri Honko from Turku, Finland with Prof. Similarly Prof. Peter J Claus has done intensive work on Tulu epics.
Aditya Mallick on Devnarayan epic, Pulikonda Subbachary on Jambupurana , Dr JD Smith on Pabuji epic are some of the commendable work that have been drawn attention of the wider readership. India has a long history of board games.
You hear about these from the times of the Mahabharata and the Mughal empire. Recently, Odisha , a state in eastern India, introduced a child-friendly programme called Srujan creativity in the primary schools. About 18 million children took part in four activities like story telling activities, traditional games, traditional art and craft and music and dance and riddles over a period of three years — The result is that while there are hundreds of varieties of folktales, the varieties of traditional games are limited.
About three hundred traditional games both indoor and outdoor were commonly played and it was found that the traditional games contain mathematical knowledge like counting, measurement, shapes and size, geometrical ideas and finally socialization through action. The traditional games are the best ways of teaching and learning. When these are applied in the primary schools, many teachers revealed that children know many games that the teachers have forgotten. Indoor board game like "Kasadi" a wooden board with 14 pits played with tamarind seed by two or more than two girls in the domestic domain was most popular and it is still not vanished from the society.
Dr Mahendra Kumar Mishra, a folklorist and an educator has collected these games and has documented in video form. Besides other games in the domestic domain is the goat and the tiger and ganjifa. These were the forerunners of the card games of today. Ganjifa used to be circular painted stack of card like things which were played using certain rules. The scientific study of Indian folklore was slow to begin: early collectors felt far freer to creatively reinterpret source material and collected their material with a view to the picturesque rather than the representative.
Ramanujan's theoretical and aesthetic contributions span several disciplinary areas. Context-sensitivity is a theme that appears not only in Ramanujan's cultural essays, but also appears in his writing about Indian folklore and classic poetry. In "Where Mirrors are Windows," and in "Three Hundred Ramayanas" , for example, he discusses the "intertextual" nature of Indian literature, written and oral He says, "What is merely suggested in one poem may become central in a 'repetition' or an 'imitation' of it.
Rudyard Kipling was interested in folklore, dealing with English folklore in works such as Puck of Pook's Hill and Rewards and Fairies ; his experiences in India led him to also create similar works with Indian themes.
Kipling spent a great deal of his life in India and was familiar with the Hindi language. His works such as the two Jungle Books contain a lot of stories that are written after the manner of traditional folktales.
Indian themes also appear in his Just So Stories , and many of the characters bear recognisable names from Indian languages.
During the same period, Helen Bannerman penned the now notorious Indian-themed tale of Little Black Sambo , which represented itself to be an Indian folktale. After independence , disciplines and methods from anthropology began to be used in the creation of more in-depth surveys of Indian folklore. Folklorists of India can be broadly divided into three phases.
Phase I was the British Administrators who collected the local knowledge and folklore to understand the subjects they want to rule. The third phase was the post-independent period in the country where many universities, institutes and individuals started studying the folklore.
In the course of time, Academic institutions and universities in the country started opening departments on folklore in their respective regions, more in south India to maintain their cultural identity and also maintain language and culture.
Of course, the trend was more literary than analytical. It was during the s that the central Institute of Indian Languages and the American Institute of Indian Studies started their systemic study on Folklore any after that many western, as well as eastern scholars, pursued their studies on folklore as a discipline. An emerging trend of new folklorists has emerged who are committed to understanding folklore from an Indian point of view than to see the whole subjects from the western model.
Some of them are better to prefer to understand folklore from the folklore provider and consultants who are the creator and consumers of folklore.
The user of folklore knows what folklore is since their use folklore with purpose and meaning. But theoreticians see folklore from their theoretical angle. Ethics point of view, folklorist should learn from the folk as practicable as possible and folk should give the hidden meaning of folklore to the folklorist so that both of their interpretation can help to give a new meaning to the item of folklore and explore the possibility of use of folklore in the new socio-cultural domain.
His recent seminal work is three oral Ramakatha in tribal oral tradition. Dr Mishra has written five books on folklore theory and research methodology adopting the folklore of western Odisha and Chhattisgarh. The analytical work of Dr Mishra has been widely studied in the western and eastern world as a part of South Asian folklore.
One important breakthrough in the field of folklore is that it is no more confined to the study in the four walls of academic domain, rather, it has again found its space within and among the folk to get their true meaning. Raghavanvpayyanad is a major role in Indian folklore study he has written so many books about folklore, he is also an international face of Indian folkloristics both in English and Malayalam. India has a rich and varied tradition of folk music and numerous types of folk songs.
Among these traditions, a well-known musical and religious repertoire is known as Baul , which has become famous in the World Music scene. Among the most respected historical figures of the Baul tradition, Lalon Fakir and Bhaba Pagla are often mentioned. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Indian Tales And Legends (Myths & Legends) By J. E. B. Gray
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Folklore of India
From earliest childhood we are captivated by the sounds of the human voice telling a story. There is an elemental, magnetic pull to hear the myths, fables and parables that are a part of our varied cultures. We learn early life lessons from these wise folktales with their colorful characters and episodes. The Fetzer Institute's mission is to foster awareness of the power of love and forgiveness in the global community.
The folktale is a story passed down verbally from generation to generation. Each storyteller added something new to the stories, making them more interesting and fascinating as the ages passed. Different folktales bear the characteristics of the culture, folklore and customs of the people from which they originated. The collection of folktales from Africa consists of four books with 88 stories: 28 South African folktales, 40 Nigerian folktales and 10 Tanzanian folktales.
The Blue Umbrella by Ruskin Bond
Malaysian folklore is the folk culture of Malaysia and other indigenous people of the Malay archipelago as expressed in its oral traditions, written manuscripts and local wisdoms. Malaysian folklores were traditionally transmitted orally in the absence of writing systems. Oral tradition thrived among the Malays, but continues to survive among Orang Asli and numerous bornean ethnic groups in Sarawak and Sabah. Nevertheless, Malaysian folklores are closely connected with classical Malay folklore of the region. Even though, Malay folklore tends to have a regional background, with the passing of time, and through the influence of the modern media, large parts of regional Malay folklore have become interwoven with the wider popular Malaysian folklore.
The folklore of India encompasses the folklore of the nation of India and the Indian subcontinent. India is an ethnically and religiously diverse country. Given this diversity, it is difficult to generalize widely about the folklore of India as a unit.
Врешь. Она ударила его подушкой. - Рассказывай. Немедленно.
- Он постарался ее успокоить, входя вслед за ней в комнату заседаний к закрытому жалюзи окну. - Пусть директор разбирается. Она посмотрела ему в .
Но если держать дистанцию, можно заметить его вовремя. У пистолета куда большая дальность действия, чем у полутораметрового подсвечника.