awareness about tobacco consumption and cancer pdf

Awareness About Tobacco Consumption And Cancer Pdf

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Background: Smoking is considered as a global epidemic. Its adverse effects are well known which ranges from staining of teeth to life threatening diseases such as cancer. Smoking also has serious consequences on periodontal health and even affects periodontal treatment outcomes.

Cigarettes, cigars, and pipe tobacco are made from dried tobacco leaves, and ingredients are added for flavor and to make smoking more pleasant.

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Little is known about the level of awareness of blindness as a smoking-related condition, although the relationship has been well established.

The Necessity of Global Tobacco Regulations

Data were collected by means of a questionnaire in Arabic. Whereas Among men the proportion of tobacco users diminished with age as the rate of cessation increased. The proportion of men consuming traditional tobacco alone increased from 2. Tobacco use was more widespread in rural than in urban areas and was relatively high among poorly educated men from economically deprived backgrounds. The use of tobacco was believed to be harmful to health by However, there were some gaps in awareness.

WHO has estimated the number of smokers to be 1. In recent years the prevalence of smoking has decreased in many industrialized countries 4. In developing countries, however, there has been a substantial rise in the number of young adults taking up smoking and in the per capita consumption of tobacco 5.

The liberalization of trade has contributed to a growth in tobacco consumption in low-income and middle-income countries. This is compounded by the effects of smuggling, which tends to be more common in low-income countries than in wealthier countries, and benefits the tobacco manufacturers 6.

Studies conducted over the last 20 years or so show that the tobacco epidemic is firmly established in Tunisia, where the use of tobacco is especially prevalent among men. In order to take effective action it is necessary to know the magnitude of the problem at national level.

Our study, part of a survey on the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease conducted in a sample of the Tunisian population, was designed to assess the prevalence of tobacco use in the adult population and the awareness and attitudes underpinning it.

The survey was conducted on a representative national sample of subjects aged 25 and over who were resident in Tunisia. Two-stage cluster sampling was used. In the first stage a governorate was randomly selected in each of the country's seven major socioeconomic regions. In the second stage, and following stratification into urban areas with a population of or more, other urban areas and rural areas, districts were selected at random in proportion to the number of households per district.

All households in the selected districts were surveyed. The data were collected by means of a questionnaire see Box 1 in the local Arabic dialect, administered by four field workers.

Information was obtained on the following matters. The field workers were interns who had completed their medical training and were working on doctoral theses. They had received training on the objectives of the survey, the sampling methods and the administration of the questionnaire. In order to facilitate the analysis of the data a distinction was made between different categories of behaviour.

The "smokers" category included current smokers who were smoking daily and had been doing so for at least the previous month, and ex-smokers who had smoked regularly for a year but were no longer smoking. In the latter connection, regular smoking was defined as the consumption of at least 20 packets of cigarettes or g of tobacco altogether or at least one cigarette per day or one cigar per week for a year.

A heavy smoker was defined as someone who smoked 20 cigarettes or more a day. Another category comprised subjects who had never smoked but were regular consumers of traditional tobacco, i. Non-consumers of tobacco were defined as persons who had never smoked or had consumed fewer than 20 packets of cigarettes or g of tobacco in their lifetime, or less than one cigarette per day or one cigar per week for a year.

The degree of overall exposure was assessed using a conventional indicator of the number of packet-years, obtained by multiplying the number of packets of 20 cigarettes consumed in a year by the number of years of cigarette consumption.

The data were captured by means of Epi Info Version 6 software. The percentages were compared with the help of the c 2 test, and the averages by means of Student's t-test.

We used the multiple logistic regression model to identify the factors linked to attempts to quit smoking. Thirty-one dossiers, 0.

Tobacco use was reported in The overall proportion of ex-smokers was 4. Current smokers made up However, for both sexes the proportion consuming traditional tobacco exclusively increased with age.

For men it rose from 2. The rate of cessation increased with age for men, rising from 4. Tobacco use was more widespread in rural than in urban areas. The consumption of traditional tobacco was higher for both sexes in rural areas. Tobacco consumption among rural women was almost exclusively confined to traditional products Table 2.

The percentage of smokers was higher among persons with a father or mother who had smoked than among other people Table 3. The average age at which respondents began using tobacco was The average quantity of cigarettes consumed per day was There were no significant differences associated with sex, age, level of education or environment.

The percentage of persons smoking 20 or more cigarettes a day was The mean number of packet-years accumulated by cigarette smokers was 8. There was no significant difference between the sexes in the number of packet-years. With regard to the frequency of cessation of tobacco use, 9.

Using the multiple logistic regression model, we found that age, environment and educational level were the major determining factors in attempts to quit. Of the individuals surveyed, However, there were certain gaps in awareness. For example, The risk of other health effects attributable to tobacco use respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases was seen as minor.

Previous data on tobacco consumption in Tunisia focused on specific populations, e. Smoking was reported in just over half of all health professionals other than medical students: A comparison of our data with those obtained in other countries in the region, particularly Mediterranean countries 14 , reveals certain similarities. The use of tobacco in most countries is more prevalent among men than among women.

In all of these countries, manufactured cigarettes are the most common form in which tobacco is consumed In the present study the level of tobacco use in men was in inverse proportion to their educational level: men educated to degree level smoked less than those of lower educational level.

Furthermore, employers and senior managers smoked less than manual workers and service personnel. In most high- income countries there is a substantial difference in smoking prevalence between the different socioeconomic groups: people with lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds smoke more than educated people of higher status 6 , 15 , This is particularly true of men 6.

The most recent research indicates that, in low-income and middle-income countries, men of low socioeconomic status smoke more than others 6. Tunisian research puts the average age at which the use of tobacco begins between 19 and 20 9 , Elsewhere, people seem to begin experimenting with tobacco around the age of 14 A more detailed analysis of our results shows differences in behaviour between the generations: the current generation of persons aged over 65 was significantly older than subsequent generations when they first tried tobacco, i.

Furthermore, the rate of tobacco use in individual women, measured in particular by the quantity of cigarettes smoked in a lifetime, was close to that of men, although they often began smoking at a later age.

There is also evidence of the enduring nature of certain forms of behaviour specific to Tunisian society, such as the use of water pipes 8 , 9 , 20 or traditional substances such as snuff. The use of the latter is confined largely to older people, particularly rural women 8.

With regard to attitudes and awareness, the present study confirms the findings of previous research in Tunisia 13 , 22 and of observations made in Canada 23 , France 24 , and the United Kingdom While a large majority of people interviewed in Tunisia 13 , 22 acknowledged the damage done by smoking and made the link with cancer, particularly of the respiratory organs, the role of tobacco in the development of other illnesses was apparently overlooked by a high proportion of interviewees.

There may be other explanations besides ignorance, related to people's experience of illnesses and how they are represented in society To most people, cancer means death and suffering: other illnesses may not come immediately to mind because, compared with cancer, they occupy a much lower place in the ranking of illnesses that concern people, being perceived as less serious and taking a long time to develop Thus, as far as tobacco control is concerned, campaigns to educate and inform people, individually and collectively, would have an even greater impact if such gaps in awareness could be filled.

Most tobacco users in Tunisia were men. The use of tobacco was more common in rural areas than in urban areas and among people of low socioeconomic status and low educational level than among those of high socioeconomic status and educational level. The age at which people began to smoke appeared to be falling. Among young people, the use of tobacco was confined almost exclusively to cigarette smoking.

Older people often used snuff and were more successful than young people in their attempts to quit. Awareness of the adverse effects of tobacco use was largely satisfactory, despite certain gaps that could possibly be explained by people's experience of illnesses and the way they are represented in society.

Action should be taken to educate people about the use of tobacco, focusing not only on primary prevention, i. Family doctors can play a pivotal role in this endeavour. Mortality from tobacco in developed countries: Indirect estimation from national vital statistics.

Lancet ; Peto R. Smoking and death: the past 40 years and the next British Medical Journal ; World Health Organization. Tobacco or health: a global status report. Geneva: World Health Organization; Pierce JP. International comparisons of trends in cigarette smoking prevalence. American Journal of Public Health ; Mackay J, Crofton J. Tobacco and the developing world.

Tobacco as a cause

You can, too! No matter how long you have smoked, quitting can reduce your risk for cancer and other chronic diseases. Quitting smoking can be hard. Most smokers try to quit many times before they succeed. For more information about quitting smoking, go to smokefree.

This study focuses on the impact of mass media in creating awareness and enhancing efficacy of tobacco control interventions by disseminating knowledge to the public about the harmful effects of tobacco. The study found that a higher proportion of adults was exposed to anti-smoking information across different media compared with anti-smokeless tobacco information. Tobacco users are also less likely to be aware of the health hazards of tobacco compared with non-users. Noticing anti-tobacco messages and knowing the health hazards of smokeless tobacco use are significantly associated with cessation attempts among tobacco users in India. Males are more likely to notice anti-smoking and anti-smokeless tobacco information through any media compared with females.

Data were collected by means of a questionnaire in Arabic. Whereas Among men the proportion of tobacco users diminished with age as the rate of cessation increased. The proportion of men consuming traditional tobacco alone increased from 2. Tobacco use was more widespread in rural than in urban areas and was relatively high among poorly educated men from economically deprived backgrounds. The use of tobacco was believed to be harmful to health by However, there were some gaps in awareness.

PDF | Objective To investigate an association between the awareness about the effects of tobacco Awareness about the effects of tobacco consumption on oral health and the possibility of who thought that smoking causes oral cancer had.

Health effects of tobacco

Tobacco use has predominantly negative effects on human health and concern about health effects of tobacco has a long history. Research has focused primarily on cigarette tobacco smoking. Tobacco smoke contains more than 70 chemicals that cause cancer.

The tobacco industry constantly and aggressively seeks new users to replace the ones who quit and the current users - up to half - who will die prematurely from cancer, heart attack, stroke, emphysema or other tobacco-related disease. Among the industry's many targets of opportunity, women constitute one of the biggest. That's because fewer women than men smoke or chew tobacco. Of the world's over 1 billion smokers, only about million are women. While the epidemic of tobacco use among men is in slow decline in some countries, use among women in some countries is increasing.

Not Available. While multinational tobacco companies market high tar and nicotine cigarettes worldwide, in developing countries they advertise these products with techniques that are banned in their home countries.

Prevention, awareness and accountability in tobacco control

The waterpipe apparatus also known as shisha, hookah, or narghile , used mainly in North African and Asian countries, probably originated in India in the 16th century. Waterpipe use was higher among cigarette smokers, younger individuals, and single individuals. Most students were aware that waterpipe smoking is harmful; this proportion was higher among sixth-year students. However, despite their greater knowledge of the attendant risks, there were no differences in the prevalence of use. These data reveal a higher prevalence than that reported in the aforementioned study of recruits 3 and that reported in a survey of medical students at a Brazilian university.

 Больше трех часов. Стратмор кивнул. Она не выглядела взволнованной. - Новая диагностика. Что-нибудь из Отдела обеспечения системной безопасности.

 - Похоже, вышла какая-то путаница.  - Он положил руку на плечо Чатрукьяна и проводил его к двери.  - Тебе не нужно оставаться до конца смены. Мы с мисс Флетчер пробудем здесь весь день. Будем охранять нашу крепость.

Пуля попала в корпус мотоцикла и рикошетом отлетела в сторону. Беккер изо всех сил старался удержаться на шоссе, не дать веспе съехать на обочину. Я должен добраться до ангара.

Сьюзан смотрела, как фигура Стратмора растворяется во тьме шифровалки. ГЛАВА 63 Новообретенная веспа Дэвида Беккера преодолевала последние метры до Aeropuerto de Sevilla. Костяшки его пальцев, всю дорогу судорожно сжимавших руль, побелели. Часы показывали два часа с минутами по местному времени. Возле главного здания аэровокзала Беккер въехал на тротуар и соскочил с мотоцикла, когда тот еще двигался.

Но сейчас я. ГЛАВА 69 - Эй, мистер. Беккер, шедший по залу в направлении выстроившихся в ряд платных телефонов, остановился и оглянулся.

Tobacco and Cancer

 Прошу прощения? - проговорил директор.

Мидж злорадно подмигнула. - Никогда не забывай, Чед, что Большой Брат знает. Большой Брат. Бринкерхофф отказывался в это поверить. Неужели Большой Брат следит за тем, что делается в кладовке.

В кабине стоял какой-то мужчина. Беккер успел заметить лишь очки в железной оправе. Мужчина поднес к носу платок. Беккер вежливо улыбнулся и вышел на улицу - в душную севильскую ночь.

 Мне нужно кольцо, - холодно сказал. - Кто вы такой? - потребовала. Беккер перешел на испанский с ярко выраженным андалузским акцентом: - Guardia Civil. Росио засмеялась.

Стратмор задумался. - Должно быть, где-то замыкание.

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  1. Marjolaine F.

    Principale maladie de la poule pdf genetics from genes to genomes 4th edition solution manual pdf

    18.05.2021 at 09:55 Reply
  2. Thdefriadeabu

    To investigate an association between the awareness about the effects of tobacco consumption on oral health and the likelihood of smoking among male schoolchildren.

    21.05.2021 at 02:06 Reply
  3. Phillip L.

    To find out awareness towards tobacco consumption and to find out association lung cancer, 42% of chronic respiratory disease and.

    24.05.2021 at 00:52 Reply

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