File Name: refrigeration and air conditioning projects .zip
- Project Report
- Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration. Mechanical Engineering Handbook
- Hvac Handbook Pdf
We wish to express our deep sense of gratitude to Sri N. Throughout the project work, their useful suggestions, constant encouragement has gone a long way in their valuable time at odd hours for their patience and understanding they showed.
We consider it our privilege to express our deepest gratitude to Dr. RAMESH, Professor, and Head of the Department for his valuable suggestions and constant motivation that greatly helped the project work to get successfully completed. We also thank Dr. RAJU, Principal, for extending his utmost support and cooperation in providing all the provisions for the successful completion of the project.
We sincerely thank all the members of the staff in the Mechanical Engineering Department for their sustained help in our pursuits. We thank all those who contributed directly or indirectly in successfully carrying out this work. Adiseshan A Manohar A Preetham A Sai Krishna A The objective of project is to use vapor absorption system instead of vapor compression system having water as the refrigerant and lithium bromide as absorbent.
The air conditioning system compresses of a generator, a segregator, a condenser, an evaporator, an absorber, a heat exchanger and a plurality of conducts intercommunicated thereto between to form a circulated cooled air production system. The improvement is characterized in utilizing the residual heat from the exhaust pipe of an engine of an engine by helically winding a coil tube around the main portion of the exhaust pipe so that the liquidized refrigerant water H20 from the generator will flow through and be heated into a mixture of the vapor and lithium bromide and enter into the segregator for a process of separation.
Then, the vapor enters into the condenser via a capillary tube and from there enters into the evaporator for a process of vaporization. Cooled air is therefore produced and vented into the interior of the automobile. The vapor from the evaporator will then go to the absorber and re-enter the generator after it is mixed with lithium bromide which is returned from the segregator after being processed there to.
Whereby, a cooling circulation for this system is therefore completed. Previously ammonia-water was used as refrigerant, due to the drawbacks such as depletion of ozone layer and hazardous to humans as it is a toxic gas.
So water is used as a refrigerant. By implementing this absorption system, the compressor is eliminated thereby reducing the power consumption of the system. This results in higher overall efficiency and less fuel consumption of the engine. Further an analysis is made between vapor compression and vapor absorption system and various parameters are studied.
The main aim of the project is to study implementation of vapour absorption system for automobiles and make a working model. Rasul and A. Murphy  have evaluated the feasibility of an absorption refrigeration unit on solar power. A prototype model that is capable of producing a temperature change in the evaporator was designed, fabricated and tested. The performances and effectiveness of the unit was studied by determining refrigeration effect RE , coefficient of performance COP and explaining operational issues of the unit.
Johnny L. And finished by looking at various methods of powering systems with minimal or better yet no, grid power assistance. Chiara Boccaletti  aimed at individuating the main heat transfer and thermodynamic phenomena, at the basis of operation of refrigerating machines.
The final objective of his study was to attain design of machines characterized by higher performance, lower specific energy consumption and higher reliability. Mittal, K. Kasana, N. Thakur studied a detailed review on the past efforts in the field of solar absorption cooling systems with the absorption pair of lithium-bromide and water. They have investigated the influence of key parameters on the overall system performance. They also performed the modeling and simulation of a solar absorption cooling system of a solar-powered, single stage, absorption cooling system, using a flat plate collector and water—lithium bromide solution.
They developed a computer program for the absorption system to simulate various cycle configurations with the help of various weather data for the village Bahal, District Bhiwani, Haryana, India. They have also studied the effect of hot water inlet temperatures on the coefficient of performance COP and the surface area of the absorption cooling component.
The first part of this work deals with the dynamic modeling of an evacuated tube collector used for the simulation of heat production. Hugo Lima Moreira, Paulo Henrique Dias dos Santos, Celina Maria Cunha Ribeiro, Ednildo Andrade  Torres, Antonio Pralon Ferreira Leite, Carlos Antonio Cabral dos Santos have worked on the thermo economic or exergoeconomic analysis of a double-effect absorption refrigeration system with the water-lithium bromide pair, operating with the direct combustion of natural gas.
They performed exergoeconomic evaluation of the thermodynamic flows, which go through this cycle, for operational conditions aimed at a refrigerating capacity from 5 to 15 TR.
And applied to the present system to reveal which component in the cycle would be wasting energy. This method was also based on the incidence matrix that represents the physical structure of the above-mentioned system. Guozhen Xie Guogang Sheng Guang Li Shuyuan Pan Have adopted an improved cycle was adopted to raise the pressure inside the absorber of the machine in order to intensify the absorption effect of thick Lithium bromide solution and enhance the COP of the absorption refrigeration system.
A mathematical model that is used for predicting the performance of the system was developed, and the influence of pressure change on the overall performance of the  machine was studied. Thermodynamic properties of each point in the cycle were calculated using related equations of state.
Heat transfer rate of each component in the cycle and some performance parameters were calculated from the first law analysis. From the second law analysis, the entropy generation of each component and the total entropy generation of all the system components were obtained. They examined the Variation of the performance and entropy generation of the system at various operating conditions.
Kim, C. Solar fraction of a single effect system would be lower than half effect system, unless vacuum tube collectors or comparable types are used. Wang and R. Oliveira have presented the achievements gained in solid sorption refrigeration prototypes the applications included are ice making and air conditioning. The latter includes not only cooling and heating, but also dehumidification by desiccant systems.
The prototypes presented were designed to use waste heat or solar energy as the main heat  source. Miguel Ramos, Rafael L. Espinoza, Manfred J. Horn have done experimental evaluations of a prototype solar refrigerator, based on an Intermittent thermodynamic cycle of adsorption, using water as refrigerant and the mineral zeolite as Absorber. This system uses a mobile absorber, which is regenerated out of the refrigeration cycle and no Condenser is applied, because the solar regeneration is made in the ambient air for the regeneration, aSK14 solar cooker is considered.
The various technology options are discussed and evaluated. An assessment is made about current and future development of adsorption refrigeration technologies. Seifert DBI Gas- und Umwelttechnik have worked on a new and innovative concept of the supply with power, heat and chilliness the Core of their demonstration project are a fuel cell, an adsorption Refrigeration machine as well as multi-solar collectors.
A continuously operation, high fuel utilization and reduced  environmental pollution can be demonstrated. Camargo had worked on the basic principles of the evaporative cooling process for human thermal comfort, the principles of operation for the direct evaporative cooling system and the mathematical development of the equations of thermal exchanges, allowing the determination of the effectiveness of saturation.
He also presented some results of experimental tests in a direct evaporative cooler that take place in the Air Conditioning Laboratory at the University infatuate Mechanical Engineering Department, and the experimental results are used to determinate the convective heat transfer coefficient and to compare with the mathematical model.
Bansal investigated the performance characteristics of three domestic refrigerators, namely the vapor compression VC , the thermoelectric TE and the absorption refrigeration AR. AR and TE refrigerators are the result of research and development in refrigeration system in the quest to find a cooling system which does not use any refrigerant that damages the ozone layer.
Three refrigerators of similar capacity were compared for their usage in the hotel industry in view of their energy efficiency, noise produced and cost. From the above literature review it was found the air conditioning of automobiles can be provided either by vapor absorption system or adsorption system. Refrigeration may be defined as the process of achieving and maintaining a temperature below that of the surroundings, the aim being to cool some product or space to the required temperature.
One of the most important applications of refrigeration has been the preservation of perishable food products by storing them at low temperatures. Refrigeration systems are also used extensively for providing thermal comfort to human beings by means of air conditioning. Air Conditioning refers to the treatment of air so as to simultaneously control its temperature, moisture content, cleanliness, odor and circulation, as required by occupants, a process, or products in the space.
In olden days refrigeration was achieved by natural means such as the use of ice or evaporative cooling. In earlier times, ice was transported from colder regions, harvested in winter and stored in ice houses for summer use or, made during night by cooling of water by radiation to stratosphere.
The art of making ice by nocturnal cooling was perfected in India. In this method ice was made by keeping a thin layer of water in a shallow earthen tray, and then exposing the tray to the night sky. Compacted hay of about 0. The water looses heat by radiation to the stratosphere which is around oC and by early morning hours the water in the tray freezes to ice.
This method of ice production was very popular in India. Human beings perspire and dissipate their metabolic heat by evaporative cooling if the ambient temperature is more than skin temperature. Animals such as the hippopotamus and buffalo coat themselves with mud for evaporative cooling.
Evaporative cooling has been used in India for centuries to obtain cold water in summer by storing the water in earthen pots. The water permeates through the pores of earthen vessel to its outer surface where it evaporates to the surrounding, absorbing its latent heat in part from the vessel, which cools the water. It is said that Patliputra University situated on the bank of river Ganges used to induce the evaporative-cooled air from the river.
Suitably located chimneys in the rooms augmented the upward flow of warm air, which was replaced by cool air. Evaporative cooling by placing wet straw mats on the windows is also very common in India. Now-a-days desert coolers are being used in hot and dry areas to provide cooling in summer. Though it is very difficult to make a clear demarcation between natural and artificial refrigeration, it is generally agreed that the history of artificial refrigeration began in the year , when the Scottish professor William Cullen made the first refrigerating machine, which could produce a small quantity of ice in the laboratory.
Based on the working principle, refrigeration systems can be classified as vapor compression systems, vapor absorption systems, gas cycle systems etc. The first air conditioning systems were used for industrial as well as comfort air conditioning. Eastman Kodak installed the first air conditioning system in in Rochester, New York for the storage of photographic films.
An air conditioning system was installed in a printing press in and in a telephone exchange in Hamburg in Many systems were installed in tobacco and textile factories around The first domestic air conditioning system was installed in a house in Frankfurt in Efforts have also been made to air condition passenger rail coaches using ice.
The widespread development of air conditioning is attributed to the American scientist and industrialist Willis Carrier.
Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration. Mechanical Engineering Handbook
Search this site. Acacia Leiocalyx PDF. Alles, was ich von meiner Klasse zum Abschied bekommen habe, ist dieses doofe Buch. Angina 2e PDF. Animales Jardineros PDF. Architecture PDF. Atheroma and Thrombosis PDF.
Hvac Handbook Pdf
Air conditioning can be used in both domestic and commercial environments. This process is most commonly used to achieve a more comfortable interior environment, typically for humans and other animals; however, air conditioning is also used to cool and dehumidify rooms filled with heat-producing electronic devices, such as computer servers , power amplifiers , and to display and store some delicate products, such as artwork. Air conditioners often use a fan to distribute the conditioned air to an enclosed space such as a building or a car to improve thermal comfort and indoor air quality. Electric refrigerant-based AC units range from small units that can cool a small bedroom, which can be carried by a single adult, to massive units installed on the roof of office towers that can cool an entire building.
We wish to express our deep sense of gratitude to Sri N. Throughout the project work, their useful suggestions, constant encouragement has gone a long way in their valuable time at odd hours for their patience and understanding they showed. We consider it our privilege to express our deepest gratitude to Dr.